Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

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Paeonia-Literatur 2004

Beruto, Margherita (1); Luca Lanteri (2); Cristina Portogallo (2) Micropropagation of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, November 2004, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 249-255(7) [Abstract: We investigated the in vitro propagation by axillary budding of different cultivars of tree peonies, selected for cut flower production under Mediterranean conditions. Buds with expanded leaves were better to initiate cultures than just emerged ones (64% compared to 43%). The aptitude for micropropagation was genotype-dependent, and the propagation ratio ranged between 2 and 5 per cycle. Tendency to necrosis and/or hyperhydricity were also genotype dependent. Indole-3-butyric acid improved rooting but was not really necessary provided the shoots were pre-treated at 2 °C for 7days. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized under in vitro conditions. Adventitious propagation was achieved using filaments and petals as explants. They first developed callus, able to regenerate shoots after 8 weeks on media supplemented with thidiazuron. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-004-0666-8] Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers (1): Istituto Regionale per la Floricoltura, Tissue Culture Service, Via Carducci 12, 18038, Sanremo, IM, Italy, Email: (2): Istituto Regionale per la Floricoltura, Tissue Culture Service, Via Carducci 12, 18038, Sanremo, IM, Italy,

Buchite, Harvey, 2004, August 02: Peony Species Introduction, online available under:

Buchite, Harvey, 2004, August 03: Growing Tree Peonies in Minnesota, online available under:

Chen F, Lu HT, Jiang Y. Purification of paeoniflorin from Paeonia lactiflora Pall. by high-speed counter-current chromatography .J Chromatogr A. 2004 Jun 25;1040(2):205-8. [Abstract: High-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the first time for the preparative separation and purification of paeoniflorin from the Chinese medicinal plant Paeonia lactiflora Pall. using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol-ethyl acetate-water (1:4:5, v/v) in a single run. From 160 mg of the crude sample containing 22.0% paeoniflorin, 33.2 mg of paeoniflorin was yielded at 98.2% purity as determined by HPLC analysis. The recovery of paeoniflorin was 94.3%.] Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.

Dai Yan, Kiyoto Saito, Yuri Ohmi, Noriyo Fujie, and Kenzo Ohtsuka Paeoniflorin, a novel heat shock protein–inducing compound Cell Stress Chaperones. 2004 October; 9(4): 378–389. doi: 10.1379/CSC-51R.1. Copyright © 2004, Cell Stress Society International [Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are induced by various physical, chemical, and biological stresses. HSPs are known to function as molecular chaperones, and they not only regulate various processes of protein biogenesis but also function as lifeguards against proteotoxic stresses. Because it is very useful to discover nontoxic chaperone-inducing compounds, we searched for them in herbal medicines. Some herbal medicines had positive effects on the induction of HSPs (Hsp70, Hsp40, and Hsp27) in cultured mammalian cells. We next examined 2 major constituents of these herbal medicines, glycyrrhizin and paeoniflorin, with previously defined chemical structures. Glycyrrhizin had an enhancing effect on the HSP induction by heat shock but could not induce HSPs by itself. In contrast, paeoniflorin had not only an enhancing effect but also an inducing effect by itself on HSP expression. Thus, paeoniflorin might be termed a chaperone inducer and glycyrrhizin a chaperone coinducer. Treatment of cells with paeoniflorin but not glycyrrhizin resulted in enhanced phosphorylation and acquisition of the deoxyribonucleic acid–binding ability of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), as well as the formation of characteristic HSF1 granules in the nucleus, suggesting that the induction of HSPs by paeoniflorin is mediated by the activation of HSF1. Also, thermotolerance was induced by treatment with paeoniflorin but not glycyrrhizin. Paeoniflorin had no toxic effect at concentrations as high as 80 ?g/ mL (166.4 ?M). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the induction of HSPs by herbal medicines. ] 1Laboratory of Cell and Stress Biology, Department of Environmental Biology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan, 2Department of Medical Imaging and Information, Graduate School, Suzuka University of Medical Science, 1001-1 Suzuka, Mie 510-0293, Japan Correspondence to: Kenzo Ohtsuka, Tel: 81-568-51-1111, ext. 5653; Fax: 81-568-52-6594; Free online arcticle is available at the Publisher's site.: here.

Hatip-Al-Khatib I, Egashira N, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Iwasaki K, Kurauchi K, Inui K, Ikeda T, Fujiwara M. Determination of the effectiveness of components of the herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba in improving the scopolamine-induced impairment of rat's spatial cognition in eight-armed radial maze test. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Sep;96(1):33-41. Epub 2004 Sep 4. [Abstract: The improving effects of various components of Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TSS) and fractions isolated from Angelica acutiloba Radix (Toki) on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment were investigated in eight-armed radial maze. The scopolamine-induced memory impairment was characterized by prominent increase of error choices in addition to decreased correct choices. Toki, Cnidium officinale Rhizoma (Senkyu), Poria cocos Hoelen (Bukuryo), Alisma orientale Rhizoma (Takusha), and Atractylodes lancea Rhizoma (Sojutsu) increased the correct choices, while only the Toki, Sojutsu, and Takusha decreased the error choices. No effect was produced by Paeonia lactiflora Radix (Shakuyaku). Investigation of effects of fractions isolated from Toki revealed that its activity mainly resided in the butanol layer and its contents of N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide and amines. Moreover, the alkaloid, internal and external solutions (containing poly-, di-, and monosaccharides) obtained by dialysis with Visking cellophane tubing also improved the memory. However, no improving properties were detected for methanol and hexanol layers, L-(-)-tryptophan, L-arginine, L-(-)-lysine, and choline chloride. The results showed that the TSS components could improve the reference and working memory impaired by scopolamine. The improving effect of TSS is produced greatly by the Toki component, the activity of which was greatly produced by the fraction extracted by butanol.] Department of Pharmacology, Division of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.. Click here to read complete article.

He X, Xing D, Ding Y, Li Y, Xu L, Du L. Effects of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion on pharmacokinetic fate of paeoniflorin after intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Oct;94(2-3):339-44. [Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion on pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin after intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract (PRE) in rats. The cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats were induced by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries of normal rats for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. The resultant animals were immediately administrated by PRE (at a dose of 60 mg/kg of paeoniflorin) via the femoral vein, whilst the same dose was injected to the normal rats. Plasma samples were collected at different time to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time. Quantification of paeoniflorin in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method. In normal rats, the major parameters of distribution half-life (t1/2alpha), elimination half-life (t1/2beta), area under the plasma concentration-time (AUC), mean retention time (MRT), and clearance (CL), estimated by an open two-compartmental model, were 0.69, 18.77 min, 5338.71 (microg min)/ml, 18.13 min and 0.0162 mg/(kg min), respectively. However, in ischemia-reperfusion rats, the corresponding parameters were 2.04, 24.51 min, 9626.00 (microg min)/ml, 29.75 min and 0.0071 mg/(kg min), respectively. The results showed that ischemia- reperfusion significantly increased AUC values, decreased CL values, and prolonged the terminal half-life of paeoniflorin. These findings suggest that the injuries of ischemia-reperfusion could play an important role in pharmacokinetic process of paeoniflorin.] Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100094, China. Click here to read complete article

Hong D Y & Pan K Y, 2004: A taxonomical revision of the Paeonia anomala L. complex. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 91(1): 87—98. (PDF: (link to a local copy .pdf-file)

Hong D Y, Pan K Y & Zhou Z Q, 2004: Circumscription of Paeonia suffruticosa and identification of cultivated tree peonies. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 42(3): 275—283. (PDF: (link to a local copy .pdf-file)

Symposium 12 Botany in ex-Yugoslav countries Organizer: O. Vasi? Hall 2: 9-13

De-Y. Hong: Paeonia in the Mediterranean-W Asian region: taxonomy and biogeography, (link)

Hong D Y, Wang X Q & Zhang D M, 2004: Paeonia saueri (Paeoniaceae), a new species from the Balkans. Taxon, 53(1): 83—90. (link to a local copy .pdf-file)

Jiang YR, Yin HJ, Chen KJ. [Current status of research on Radix paeoniae 801][Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;24(8):760-3.

Kim HK, Tak JH, Ahn YJ. Acaricidal activity of Paeonia suffruticosa root bark-derived compounds against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):7857-61. [Abstract: The acaricidal activities of materials derived from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa against adults of Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using direct contact and fumigation bioassays and compared with those of benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet), widely used acaricides. The active constituents of Paeonia root bark were identified as paeonol and benzoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values, the acaricidal activities of paeonol (7.82 microg/cm3) and benzoic acid (6.58 microg/cm3) against adult D. farinae were comparable to that of benzyl benzoate (7.72 microg/cm3) but higher than those of deet (36.34 microg/cm3) and dibutyl phthalate (33.92 microg/cm3). Against adult D. pteronyssinus, the acaricidal activities of paeonol (7.08 microg/cm3) and benzyl benzoate (7.22 microg/cm3) were comparable to that of benzyl benzoate (7.14 microg/cm3). Deet and dibutyl phthalate were less effective. In fumigation tests with both mite species, paeonol and benzoic acid were much more effective in closed containers than open ones, indicating that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Neither benzyl benzoate, deet, nor dibutyl phthalate exhibited fumigant toxicity. Paeonia root bark-derived materials, particularly paeonol and benzoic acid, merit further study as potential acaricides or lead compounds for the control of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.] School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Click here to read full article

Leem K, Kim H, Boo Y, Lee HS, Kim JS, Yoo YC, Ahn HJ, Park HJ, Seo JC, Kim HK, Jin SY, Park HK, Chung JH, Cho JJ. Effects of Paeonia lactiflora root extracts on the secretions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -3 in human nasal fibroblasts. Phytother Res. 2004 Mar;18(3):241-3. [Abstract: In the field of Oriental medicine, the root of Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniae Radix) has been prescribed usually to treat the common cold, and it was thought to alleviate upper respiratory infection or nasal inflammation. Monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)-1 and MCP-3 are known as the most potent chemokines to mediate allergic inflammation. The object of the study was to investigate the effect of Paeoniae Radix on the release of the chemokines such as MCP-1 and MCP-3. To detect the secretion of MCPs, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for human nasal mucosal fibroblasts after stimulation with several cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The secretion of MCP-1 was increased after stimulation with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment. Co-treatment of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, or IL-1beta and IFN-gamma increased the secretion of MCP-1 and MCP-3. Paeoniae Radix was tested with inflammatory cytokines, and the results showed that the Paeoniae Radix significantly decreased the secretion of MCP-1 and MCP-3. In our study, Paeoniae Radix may play an important role in nasal inflammation with a modulation of MCP-1 and MCP-3. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.] College of Oriental Medicine, Semyung University, Chungbuk 390-711, South Korea. Click here to read

Lee SJ, Lee HM, Ji ST, Lee SR, Mar W, Gho YS. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose blocks endothelial cell growth and tube formation through inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor. Cancer Lett. 2004 May 10;208(1):89-94. [Abstract:Tumor angiogenesis is a critical step for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important angiogenic molecule associated with tumor-induced neovascularization. VEGF exerts its activity through binding to its receptor tyrosine kinase, KDR/Flk-1, expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. From the screening of medicinal plants, we have identified 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (PGG) from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora that inhibited the binding of VEGF to KDR/Flk-1. PGG efficiently blocked VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and the growth of immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells, but did not affect the growth of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells. PGG also blocked VEGF-induced capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cell on Matrigel. Our results suggest that PGG could be a candidate for developing anti-angiogenic agent.] Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, South Korea. Click here to read full article

Li G, Seo CS, Lee KS, Kim HJ, Chang HW, Jung JS, Song DK, Son JK. Protective constituents against sepsis in mice from the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Nov;27(11):1123-6. [Abstract: The bioassay-guided fractionation of protective agents against sepsis-induced lethality from the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa ANDREWS (Ranunculaceae) led to the isolation of eight known compounds: paeonol (1), 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (2), acetovanillone (3), paeonoside (4), paeoniflorin (5), oxypaeoniflorin (6), apiopaeonoside (7), and methyl 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (8). Among them, 3 showed the highest survival rate (100% with a dose of 30 mg/kg versus 17% for the control experiment) and reduced alanine aminotransferase level to be a half of the control value on the sepsis model induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.] College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, P R China.

Li J, Wu BY, Jiang YR. [Study on interaction of Radix Paeoniae 801 and endothelin-1 by using a piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;24(8):714-6. [Abstract: To explore the possible target and molecular mechanism of Radix Paeoniae 801 (RP801), an effective ingredient extracted from Radix Paeoniae, the Chinese herbal medicine for activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis, using experimental in vitro method by directly detecting the interaction between RP801 and endothelin-1 (ET-1). METHODS: Piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor, namely, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to detect the specific combining between RP801 and ET-1 by binding avidin to the pre-activated Au surface of electrode of QCM, followed by immobilizing biotinylated ET-1 to it, and adding RP801, then the binding curve was recorded. PBS washing was applied at the end of every steps of combining reaction for dissociate the non-specific absorption. RESULTS: Specific combining of RP801 and ET-1 was found. CONCLUSION: ET-1 could possibly be one of the acting targets of RP801 in the body, that is, RP801 could combine with ET-1 to impede the binding of ET-1 with its receptor, so as to counteract the action of ET-1, dilate blood vessels and inhibit platelet aggregation.] Life-Science College, Nankai University, Tianjin.

Li Q B, Zhou Z Q, Zhao X, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Interspecific relationships among the wild species of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC. based on DNA sequences of Adh gene family. Acta Hort. Sin. 31(5): 627—632. [Abstract: A portion (the big intron between exon 5 and 6, ca. 2 kb) of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene of 15 wild tree peony accessions collected from 15 populations, which represent all the eight wild species in sect. Moutan, was analyzed using PCR-RFLP technique, and this portion of nine accessions, which represent also all the eight wild species, was sequenced for a better understanding of the interspecific relationships in this section. A reduced-median (RM) network of sect. Moutan was constructed with Network 3.0 computer program using the PCR-RFLP data obtained from the digestion experiments of 12 selected restriction enzymes. Both maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of sect. Moutan were constructed with PAUP*4.0 program using the sequences newly obtained in this study and from GenBank. As a result, a well resolved and highly supported gene tree of sect. Moutan (by bootstrap values) was obtained. The tree is basically in accordance with that constructed from morphological data. The phylogenetic relationships among species in sect. Moutan are discussed in detail.]

Passalaqua, Nicodemo G. & Bernardo, Liliana: The genus Paeonia L. in Italy: taxonomic survey and revision. Webbia 59(2): 215-268. 2004.

Qu P, Li GL, Xu MT. [A novel catalysis kinetics fluorimetry system for the determination of eliminating ratio of Chinese traditional medicine for *OH] [Article in Chinese] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2004 Nov;24(11):1407-9.[Abstract: Benzoic acid with weak fluorescence may react on *OH, and then products with intense fluorescence are made. Extractives of Chinese traditional medicine may eliminate *OH in solution, and reduce the amounts of the products. Then, the increased level of fluorescence of the products in solution will be lowered. Based on this principle, a novel catalysis kinetics fluorimetry system for the determination of eliminating ratio of Chinese traditional medicine for *OH was developed. When the concentration of traditional Chinese herbal drugs was 4.0 mg (dry weight) x mL(-1), the eliminating ratios of Viola yedoensis, Atrctylodes chinensis and Paeonia veitchii were 60.8%, 40.1% and 94.3%, respectively. The results obtained by this method are in good agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. ] Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000, China.

Rieck, Irmtraud & Rieck, Gottlob, 2004, Paeonia mairei, Gartenpraxis 7:14-16

Riaz N, Malik A, Rehman AU, Ahmed Z, Muhammad P, Nawaz SA, Siddiqui J, Choudhary MI. Lipoxygenase inhibiting and antioxidant oligostilbene and monoterpene galactoside from Paeonia emodi. Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(8):1129-35. [Abstract: Paeoninol and paeonin C, oligostilbene and monoterpene galactoside, have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruits of Paeonia emodi. Their structures have been assigned on the basis of spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 3, gallic acid 4 and methyl gallate 5 have also been reported for the first time from this species. Compounds 1 and 2 have displayed potent inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase in a concentration-dependent fashion with the IC(50) values 0.77 and 99.5 microM, along with ABTS(.+) radical quenching activity with IC(50) values of 147.5 and 498.2 microM, respectively.] International Centre for Chemical Sciences, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan. Click here to read

Sang T, Pan J, Zhang D M, Diane Ferguson, Wang C, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Origins of polyploids: an example from peonies (Paeonia) and a model for angiosperms. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 561—571. (HTML-Version: (PDF: (link to a local copy html-file) (link to a local copy .pdf-file) [The majority of tetraploid peonies are allopolyploids derived from crosses between phylogenetically distinct diploid lineages. Tetraploid Paeonia obovata was previously considered to be an autopolyploid because it is morphologically indistinguishable from the diploid of the same species. The presence of the Adh2 gene in tetraploid P. obovata but the inability to amplify the Adh2 gene from Chinese diploids of P. obovata, however, suggests that the tetraploid was not an autotetraploid derivative of the geographically adjacent diploid populations in China. The Adh gene phylogenies rather suggest that the tetraploid originated from crosses between two geographical races of diploid P. obovata distributed in China and Japan. The intermediate status of tetraploid P. obovata between auto- and allopolyploidy highlights the need for population genetic analyses of polyploid origins along the continuous range of genomic divergence. Here we present a model that describes the probabilities of polyploid formation and establishment as a function of genomic divergence between diploid progenitors. The probability of polyploid formation (Pf) is obtained from the multiplication of the probability of production of unreduced gametes (Pg) and the probability of 'hybridization' (Ph). Pf stays relatively stable when the genomic divergence is low, and then decreases progressively rapidly with the increase of genomic divergence between diploid progenitors. The probability of polyploid establishment (Pe), which depends on the rate of appearance of stable beneficial gene combinations and the rate of fertility restoration, is positively correlated with the genomic divergence of diploid parents. Multiplication of Pf and Pe gives an overall probability of polyploid origins (Po) that varies continuously along the genomic divergence between diploid progenitors.]

Satoh A, Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Okamoto T, Sei Y. Antioxidative effects related to the potential anti-aging properties of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and Carthami Flos in senescence-accelerated mice. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2004 Jul-Aug;39(1):69-82. [Abstract: The popular oxidative stress theory predicts that enhancement of the antioxidative defense system to attenuate free radical-induced damage counteracts the aging process. We used senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) because SAM has been shown to suppress the antioxidative defense system and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. We investigated the antioxidative effects of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and its crude drug component Carthami Flos. The administration of Kangen-karyu extract at 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 weeks inhibited generation of nitric oxide, superoxide and the hydroxyl radical (*OH), while Carthami Flos extract showed only *OH-scavenging activity. Diet supplemented with Kangen-karyu and Carthami Flos extracts enhanced the activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase in hepatic tissue and glutathione peroxidase in renal tissue, and reduced the hepatic lipid peroxidation level which increased with aging, indicating the protective action against oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidative status. Hepatic and renal dysfunction with aging was also ameliorated by the administration of Kangen-karyu and Carthami Flos supplements. Furthermore, the observed antioxidative properties of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu were more evident than those of Carthami Flos. These findings suggest that the protective activity of Kangen-karyu against the oxidative tissue damages during aging may be due partly to synergistic and/or additive effects of its crude preparation. The present study strongly indicates that Kangen-karyu counteract the oxidative stress and ameliorating tissue damage possibly associated with aging in SAM. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.] Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. Click here to read the complete article.

Song ZH, Wang BD, Ba H, Tong XT, Zhu DY, Jiang FX. [Studies on chemical constituents in root of Paeonia sinjiangensis] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):748-51. [OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the root of Paeonia sinjiangensis. METHOD: The constituents were isolated by silica column chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis and their physical-chemical constants. RESULT: Five compounds, paeoniflorin( I ), albiflorin (II), lactiflorin(III), daucosterol(IV), sucrose (V), were obtained. CONCLUSION: All of the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.] Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China.

Shimada Y, Yokoyama K, Goto H, Sekiya N, Mantani N, Tahara E, Hikiami H, Terasawa K. Protective effect of keishi-bukuryo-gan and its constituent medicinal plants against nitric oxide donor-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Phytomedicine. 2004 Jul;11(5):404-10. [Abstract: Keishi-bukuryo-gan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese medical (Kampo) formulation that has been administered to patients with "Oketsu" (blood stagnation) syndrome. In the process of neuronal cell death induced by brain ischemia, excessive generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals is implicated in the neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of KBG and its constituent medicinal plants against NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (NOC18)-induced neuronal death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). MTT assay showed cell viability to be significantly increased by the addition of KBG extract (KBGE) (100 microg/ml), Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) (3, 10 and 30 microg/ml), Paeoniae Radix extract (PRE) (100 microg/ml) and Moutan Cortex extract (MCE) (10 and 30 microg/ml) compared with exposure to SNP (30 microM, 24 h) only. Also, cell viability was significantly increased by the addition of KBGE (100 and 300 microg/ml), CCE (30 and 100 microg/ml), PRE (100 and 300 microg/ml) and MCE (30 and 100 microg/ml) compared with exposure to NOC 18 (100 microM, 48 h) only. Persicae Semen extract and Hoelen extract did not protect against NO donor-induced neuronal death. These results suggest that KBG has protective effect against NO-mediated neuronal death in cultured CGCs and that it is derived from Cinnamomi Cortex, Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Cortex.] PMID: 15330495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Department of Japanese Oriental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. click here to read the complete article

Sunaga K, Sugaya E, Kajiwara K, Tsuda T, Sugaya A, Kimura M. Molecular mechanism of preventive effect of peony root extract on neuron damage. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(1):9-20. [Abstract: The molecular mechanism of the protective effects of peony root extract and its component substances on neuron damage induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model and the EL mouse was investigated. Long-term administration of peony root extract for 30 days prior to metallic cobalt powder application to the cerebral cortex of mice resulted in increased expression of A20, an inhibitor gene of cell death. In the EL mouse, a hereditary epilepsy animal model with vulnerable neurons, increased expression of A20 was observed even without administration of peony root extract. Long-term administration of peony root extract to the EL mouse resulted in a marked increase of expression of A20. These results suggested that an increase in A20 expression is the main molecular mechanism of protective action of peony root extract on neuron damage.] Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan.

Sun WS, Imai A, Tagami K, Sugiyama M, Furui T, Tamaya T. In vitro stimulation of granulosa cells by a combination of different active ingredients of unkei-to. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(4):569-78 [Abstract: Unkei-to is widely used in traditional Japanese herbal medicine for its ovulation-inducing effect. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effects of unkei-to and its compounds on the steroidogenesis and cytokine secretion in human granulosa cells. Unkei-to stimulated the secretions of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone from highly luteinized granulosa cells obtained from in vitro fertilization patients; the stimulated effect on estradiol secretion occurred with 0.3 microg/ml, while a significant effect on progesterone secretion was obtained at 10 microg/ml. The unkei-to stimulation of estradiol secretion could be accounted for by the effects of its ingredients, Shakuyaku (paeoniae radix, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas) and Keihi (cinnamomi cortex, Cinnamomum cassia Blume); while dose response curves for unkei-to and Keihi to induce progesterone production were superimposable. Exposure of the cells to unkei-to caused dose-dependent increases in the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in the culture medium. Similar results were obtained when cells were incubated with the ingredient Ninjin (ginseng radix, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), but not Shakuyaku and Keihi. These results indicate that unkei-to has direct stimulatory effects on human granulosa cells to stimulate the steroidogenesis and secretion of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8). The various beneficial actions of unkei-to on the ovary may result from a combination of different ingredient herbs with different stimulatory effects on both steroidogenesis and the ovulatory process within the ovary, as well as stimulatory effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis.] Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gifu University School of Medicine Gifu 500-8705, Japan.

Tsuboi H, Hossain K, Akhand AA, Takeda K, Du J, Rifa'i M, Dai Y, Hayakawa A, Suzuki H, Nakashima I. Paeoniflorin induces apoptosis of lymphocytes through a redox-linked mechanism. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Sep 1;93(1):162-72. [Abstract: Paeoniflorin (PF), isolated from paeony root, has been used as a herbal medicine for more than 1,200 years in China, Korea, and Japan for its anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory effects. In this study, we found that PF induces apoptosis in both murine T-lineage cells and human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells. This apoptosis was mediated through the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase, and fragmentation of DNA. Interestingly, PF induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT), and a ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), successfully attenuated the PF-induced apoptosis. Additionally, PF induced the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) family kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinase. Curcumin, an anti-oxidant and JNK inhibitor, inhibited PF-induced apoptosis, suggesting the possible involvement of curcumin-sensitive JNK or other redox-sensitive elements in PF-induced apoptosis. These results partially explain the action mechanism of PF-containing paeony root as a herbal medicine.] Department of Immunology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan. Click here to read full article.

Wang Y, Zhang L, Liu D. [Heavy metals accumulation in different parts of Paeonia ostii and soils at copper tailings yard] [Article in Chinese] Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Dec;15(12):2351-4. [Abstract: The study on the heavy metals contamination of Paeonia ostii and soil at the copper tailings yard in Tongling City indicated that the soil of copper tailings yard was extremely barren, only with 1.1-3.4 g x kg(-1) organic mater (1/15 of normal soil), but the contents of its Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher. Cu and Cd contents were 587.43-1176.44 mg x kg(-1) and 3.08-5.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively, 5-10 times higher than the grade two of national environmental quality standard for soils. Cu, Cd and Pb contents in Paeonia ostii exceeded the standard of medicine-use plants. Especially in its root peel, Cu and Cd contents stood at 31.50-64.00 mg x kg(-1) and 0.98-1.45 mg x kg(-1), respectively, 1.6-3.6 times surpassing the standard, which meant that both Paeonia ostii and the soil had been severely polluted. There existed evident difference in the contents of heavy metals in different parts of Paeonia ostii. Stem, leaf and root peel had higher contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. The accumulation factors of Zn and Cd were higher than those of Cu and Pb, but they were all smaller in root peel. ] College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China.

Xia L, Shen P. [Studies on the effects of Siwu Mixture on reversing multidrug resistance of human erythrocyte leukemic cell line K562/ADM] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):792-5 [OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Siwu Mixture on reversing the multidrug resistance (MDR) of human erythrocyte leukemic cell line K562/ADM. METHOD: With verapamil set as a positive control, MTT assay was applied to evaluate the resistant factor of cell line K562/ADM to anticancer drugs and the reversal index of Siwu Mixture on MDR of the cells. The concentration of adriamycin(ADM) in the cells was measured by reversal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The immunofluorescence method was used to determine the expression of P-glucoprotein(Pgp) on cell membrane. RESULT: When ADM was combined with Siwu Mixture, its concentration in the cells and the reversal index of MDR were significantly higher than those of blank control (P < 0.01). However, the expression of Pgp on cell membrane showed little difference ( P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In case of noncytotoxic dose, Siwu Mixture showed significant effect on reversing MDR of cell line K562/ADM. The effect might be related to decreasing efflux of anticancer drugs in the cells and increasing their concentration in the cells. Nevertheless, it had no influence on the expression of Pgp on cell membrane.] Department of Chinese Science and Engineering, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiong University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Xie XM, Yu CZ, Xu H, Wang S, Wang DL, Zhang L, Chou GX, Wang ZT. [Quality evaluation of prepared slices of Paeonia lactiflon--determination of paeoniflorin by HPLC][Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):759-62. [ OBJECTIVE: To establish the quality criteria of the prepared slices of Paeonia lactiflon. METHOD: RP-HPLC was used for the determination of paeoniflorin in 10 lots of samples by ultrasound-assisted extraction. RESULT: The samples were extracted with 50% methanol. Seperation of the solution was performed on an ODS column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (18:82), detected at 230 nm. CONCLUSION: The method is simple, repeatable, accurate and applicable.] Anhui College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230031, China.

Yang HO, Ko WK, Kim JY, Ro HS. Paeoniflorin: an antihyperlipidemic agent from Paeonia lactiflora. Fitoterapia. 2004 Jan;75(1):45-9. [Abstract: Paeoniflorin (1), isolated from the methanol extract of Paeonia lactiflora, showed a lowering effect on cholesterol level in the experimentally-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Paeoniflorin showed a significantly lowering effect of total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels compared with the control group at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. once a day for 4 weeks.] Department of Molecular Medicine, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, Seoul 138-736, South Korea. Click here to read

Yang YC, Lee EH, Lee HS, Lee DK, Ahn YJ. Repellency of aromatic medicinal plant extracts and a steam distillate to Aedes aegypti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2004 Jun;20(2):146-9. [Abstract: The repellent activity of methanol extracts from 23 aromatic medicinal plant species and a steam distillate against female blood-starved Aedes aegypti was examined in the laboratory by skin test and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet). Responses varied according to plant species. At a dose of 0.1 mg/cm2, the repellency of extracts of Cinnamomum cassia bark (91%), Nardostachys chinensis rhizome (81%), Paeonia suffruticosa root bark (80%), and Cinnamomum camphora steam distillate (94%) was comparable to deet (82%). The duration of the effectiveness for extracts from C. cassia bark and N. chinensis rhizome was comparable to deet and lasted for approximately 1 h. Relatively short duration of repellency was observed in P. suffruticosa root bark extract and C. camphora steam distillate. The plants described merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents.] Department of Advanced Organic Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.

Yoshiko Ueno, 2004, Peony Garden in Ueno Park, online

Zhang H, Shen P, Cheng Y., Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Si-Wu-Tang by HPLC coupled with DAD and ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Feb 18;34(3):705-13. [Abstract: An HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Si-Wu-Tang, a traditional Chinese medicine formula. Based on the baseline chromatographic separation of most constituents in Si-Wu-Tang on hypersil C18 column with water-acetonitrile-acetic acid as mobile phase, 12 compounds including phenolic acids, phthalides and terpene glycoside were identified by online ESI-MS and the comparison with literature data and standard samples. Most of these compounds derive from Paeonia lactiflora and Ligusticum chuanxiong. Seven of them were quantitated by HPLC coupled with DAD. The validation of the method, including sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery, were examined. The linear calibration curve were acquired with R2 > 0.99 and LOD (S/N = 3) were between 0.75 and 5 ng. The repeatability was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays and R.S.D. value were within +/- 2.38%. The recovery rates of selected compounds were in the range of 96.64-105.21% with R.S.D. less than 3.22%.] College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China.

Zhao X, Zhou Z Q, Li Q B, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Molecular evidence for the interspecific relationships in Paeonia sect. Moutan: PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 42(3): 236—244. (PDF: ) (link to a local copy .pdf-file)

Zhu HM, Zhu BD. [Experimental study on preventive effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra to restenosis after carotid balloon injury in high fat-diet rabbits] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Jun;24(6):538-40. [OBJECTIVE: To observe the preventive effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) to restenosis after carotid balloon injury in rabbits. METHODS: The rabbit model of carotid balloon injury was established adopting Clowes method, and treated with extract of RPR. Component of new genesic intima and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and macrophage was determined by immunochemical stain. The collagen of type I was detected by special staining for blood vessels and the area of new genesic intima was measured by image assay system. RESULTS: RPR could remarkably decreased the PCNA positive expression and inhibit the proliferation of collagen type I and reduce the generating of new intima. CONCLUSION: RPR has significant preventive effect on the restenosis after carotid ballon injury in high fat-diet induced atherosclerotic rabbits.] Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu (610075).

Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

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Paeonia-Literatur 2004