J. G. Baker



Gardener's Chronicle 1884 vol. 21 pp 732, 779-780, 828-830; vol. 22 pp 9-10:

(Often quoted as 'Monograph of the Genus Paeonia ...')

As Paeonies, after a generation of neglect, are once again coming forward as garden favourites, I should like to say a few words about them. There is a capital monograph of them in the twelfth volume of the Transactions of the Linnean Society, by Mr. George Anderson, who immediately after writing it was killed by a fall from a carriage. It was founded upon the finest collection of garden forms that probably ever was brought together—seventy plants, that of Mr. Sabine, of the Horticultural Society, at North Mimms. In this monograph thirteen Paeonies are described under specific names, and their characters and synonyms are very carefully worked out. I should strongly recommend those of your readers who are working at Paeonies to get hold of this monograph and study it carefully. It was drawn up in the year 1817, and since that time a great many new forms have been discovered.

To-day we know about two dozen that may be considered as botanical species or subspecies. Under each of these, if brought into cultivation, there is scope for a large number of varieties, distinct from a horticultural point of view. Probably each would vary widely in the colouring of the flower. In Moutan, albiflora and officinalis, which are the best known, there is red in every shade, from crimson graduating down to pink, and also pure white.

Doubling may take place in any species to a greater or lesser extent by petalody of the very numerous stamens. In flowers so large as Paeonies these changes are very conspicuous.

The following is the best classification and enumeration of the forms which I am able to give, but Psonia, like its neighbours Aquilegia, Aconitum, and Delphinium, is what botanists call a critical genus, and the leading specific types are linked together by many intermediate connecting stages :—

Sub-genus 1.—Shrubby. Disc enveloping the base of the carpels.—P. Moutan.

Sub-genus 2.—Herbaceous.  Disc not produced to envelope the base of the carpels.

Group 1. Follicles glabrous. P. Wittmanniana, obovata, albiflora, Brownii, humilis, microcarpa, leiocarpa, coriacea, Cambessedesii.

Group 2. Follicles tomentose, erect or slightly spreading. P. tenuifolia, anomala, Emodi, officinalis, peregrina, paradoxa, lobata, mollis.

Group 3. Follicles tomentose, spreading stellately when mature. P. corallina, Russi, Broteri, triternata (daurica), arietina, decora, cretica.               




Subgenus Moutan Shrubby. Disc produced into a cup enveloping the base of the carpels.

1. P. Moutan, Sims, in Bot. Mag., t. 1154; DC., Prodr., 1, 65 ; Anders., Mon., No. I.—Stems shrubby, copiously branched. Leaflets entire at the base, often cut in the upper part into oblong acute segments, glabrous on both surfaces, moderately firm in texture, not at all decurrent on the rachis. Flowers very large, very various in colour. Carpels small, numerous, densely pilose. Widely cultivated in China and Japan from an early date. There are numerous garden varieties, of which the principal are papaveracea, figured Andr., Bot. Rep.; t. 463 ; Lodd., Bot. Cab., t. 547 ; Sims, Bot. Mag., t. 2175 ; Banksii, Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 448 ; Ker, Bot. Reg., 1. 379; Sims, Bot. Mag; t. 1154; Humei, Ker, in Bot. Reg; t. 379 ; rosea, Andr., Bot. Rep; t. 373 ; Lodd., Bot. Cab; t. 1035 ; Rawesii, Hort. Trans; vi., 479; and Anneslei, Hort. Trans, vi., 482, t. 7.

Subgenus II. Paeonia proper.Stems herbaceous. Roots a cluster of fusiform fibres. Disc not produced into a cup.

Section 1.—Follicles glabrous.

2. P. Wittmanniana. Stev., in Ann. Sc, Nat., 3, xii., 374 ; Boiss., Fl. Orient., i., 97 ; Bot Mag., t. 6645.— Stems 1-headed ; lower leaves biternate, with usually not more than three segments in each division ; leaflets thin in texture, often 1 ½ - 2 inches broad, ovate, acute, dark green and glabrous above, hairy below. Peduncle short. Sepals unequal, orbicular, the longest more than an inch long. Petals orbicular, yellowish-white, 2 inches long. Filaments longer than the small anthers. Carpels in the type glabrous, with a small ligulate spirally-curved stigma. A native of the Caucasus and the mountains of the North of Persia. A well-marked species, still rare in cultivation. We have a specimen from Asterabad, from Professor Bunge, of a variety with hairy carpels.

3. P. obovata, Maxim., Prim. Fl. Amur, p. 29 ; P. oreogeton, S. Moore, in Journ. Linn. Soc., xvi., 376.— Stems glabrous, about 2 feet long. Lower leaves not more than biternate, three thin leaflets, glabrous on both sides, oblong, acute, reaching 3 inches long, 1 ½ —2 inches broad, all deltoid at the base, the leaflets not more than nine to a fully-developed leaf.  Peduncle short. Reflexing unequal, sepals; an inch or more long. Corolla red-purple, as large as in P. officinalis. Follicles 24, arcuate, glabrous, 1 inch long, ½ inch in diam. ; stigmas small. A native of Sachalin, Amurland, and the northern provinces of China.  Not known in cultivation, so far as I am aware.

4. P. albiflora, Pallas, Fl. Ross., ii., t. 84 ; Anders., Monog., No. a ; DC., Prod., i., 66 ; P. edulis, Salisb., in Parad. Lond,, t. 78.—Stems 2—3 feet long, entirely glabrous, often branched, and bearing from 2—5 flowers. Leaflets often confluent at the base, oblong, acute, reaching a length of 3—4 inches and a breadth of 1—1 ½ inch, quite glabrous, a deeper brighter green than in the other kinds, often coloured at the edge, and the veins also red ; lower leaves with about five segments in each of the three divisions. Peduncle more produced than in officinalis, with often a large simple leaf a little below the flower, and 1—2 large foliaceous acute outer sepals. Petals as large as in officinalis, very various in colour, usually white or pink. Follicles often 3—4, ovoid, arcuate, glabrous, under i inch long, with small spiral stigmas. A native of Siberia, introduced long ago into cultivation. There are a crowd of garden varieties, but it does not shade off into any of the other species. It does not flower about London till June, and may easily be recognised at a glance from a distance by the dark bright colour of leaves, and the way in which its flowers, which are often more than one to a stem, with the large simple leaves near them, stand out above the tufts of leaves.   The principal named varieties are vestalis, Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 64; tatarica, Bot. Reg., t. 42; uniflora, Bot, Mag,, t. 1756; Whitleyi, Ker, in Bot. Reg.; t. 630; Andr., Bot, Rep., t. 612; humei = sinensis, Sims, Bot. Mag., t. 1768; and fragrans, Bot., Reg., t. 485. It was called edulis because the roots are sometimes eaten by the Mongolian Tartars.

5. P. Brownei, Dougl., in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., i., 27 ; Brewer and S. Wats, Fl. Calif., i., 13 ; P. californica, Nutt.; Torrey and Gray, Fl. N. Amer., i., 41.—Quite glabrous. Stems 1-headed, not more than 1— 1 ½ foot long, bending over till the follicles touch the ground. Leaves 5—6, decompound, with very numerous small, oblong, obtuse, or sub-acute, copiously confluent, segments ¼ — 1/3 inch broad. Peduncle short, and the outer sepals often leaf-like and compound. Corolla globose, not more than 1 inch in diameter ; orbicular petals not much larger than the sepals, dull red, brighter red towards the edges. Follicles 4—5, nearly straight, oblong, very leathery, glabrous, 1 inch long. A most distinct species, by its small globose flowers and Columbine-like leaves; the only one known in America, Its geographical range is very wide, as it extends from nearly sea level in California up nearly to the snow line on the Rocky Mountains. I am not aware that we have it now in English gardens, but it is figured in the Botanical Register, vol. xxv., tab. 30.

6. P. humilis, Retz., Obs., 33, Anders., Monogr., No. 8 ; Bot. Mag., L 1422 ; DC., Prod., i., 66.— Stems 1 ½ —2 feet long, 1-headed, hairy towards the top. Leaves five or six to a stem, the lower with twenty to thirty oblong acute copiously confluent segments ¼ — 1/3 inch broad, dark green and glabrous above, pale and pubescent beneath.  Peduncle short, and calyx with often 1—3 very compound leaves from its base. Petals orbicular, bright red, 2 inches long.  Carpels 2—3, glabrous, arcuate, 1 inch long, ½ inch in diameter ; stigmas small, reflexed. This is an old well-known inhabitant of our gardens, and is fully described in Anderson's monograph. It is not distinct from officinalis and peregrina in any broad sense. The only wild specimens I have seen are from the South of France, gathered by Petit near Perpignan. It is the P. peregrina var. leiocarpa of the French, but not of the Spanish Floras.

7. P. microcarpa, Boiss. and Reut., Pugillus, p. 3 ; P. peregrina var. leiocarpa, Cosson, Pl. Cret., p. 93 ; Willk. et Lange, Fl. Hisp., iii. 975.—Stems 1— 1 ½ foot long, 1-headed. Lower leaves with about thirty oblong, acute confluent segments 1/6 — 1/4 inch broad, very pubescent beneath. Flower solitary, the outer sepals not so compound as in humilis. Petals bright crimson. Follicles 2, glabrous, very spreading, smaller than in humilis.A native of the mountains of Spain. A very near ally of P. humilis. I am not aware that we have it in English gardens.

8. P. coriacea, Boiss., Voy. Esp., xiv., t. 3 ; Willk. et Lange, Fl. Hisp., iii., 976.—Stems glabrous, 1-headed, 1 ½ —2 feet long. Lowest leaves with not more than 9—13 leaflets, which are broad, oblong, acute, sometimes 2 or even 3 inches broad, firm in texture when mature, more or less glabrous on both surfaces. Calyx, with often 1—2 large compound leaves from its base.  Corolla large, bright crimson.  Follicles 2—3, glabrous, very spreading, above an inch long when mature. Stigmas purple, falcate. A native of the alps of Granada, at an altitude of 5000—6000 feet above sea level; and also of the mountains of Morocco and Algeria.

9. P. Corsica, Sieber Exsic. — Stems glabrous, 1 -headed. Lower leaves with not more than nine thin, oblong acute leaflets, which are 1 ½ —2 inches broad, green and glabrous on both surfaces. Calyx with 2—3 large, foliaceous, simple outer sepals. Petals large, orbicular, bright crimson. Follicles glabrous. A native of Corsica, known to me only from a single dried specimen.   There is a closely allied plant in Algeria, regarded by Munby as a variety of P. Russi.   P. Cambessedesii, Willk. and Lange, Fl, Hisp., iii., 976, from the Balearic Isles, is also, judging from the description, a closely allied form, but I have not seen a specimen. J. G. Baker.




Subgenus II. PAEONIA proper.—Stems herbaceous. Root a cluster of fusiform fibres.  Disc not produced into a cup.

Section 2.Follicles tomentose, erect-arcuate when mature.

10. P. tenuifolia, Linn. ; DC. Prodr., i., 66; Anders., Mon., No. 4; Bot. Mag., t. 926; Rchb., Icon., fig. 4740; Boiss., Fl. Orient., i., 98.—Root-tubers fascicled, with creeping stolons.  Stems 1-headed, glabrous, 1—1 ½ foot long, densely leafy up to the flower. Leaves 10—12, cut up into very numerous linear 1-nerved confluent segments under a line broad. Flower solitary, erect, surrounded by the crowded reduced upper leaves. Sepals orbicular, ½ — 2/3 inch long. Petals dark crimson, elliptic-cuneate, 1 ½ inch long. Anthers small, linear-oblong, shorter than the filaments. Follicles 2—3, erect-arcuate, villose, not more than 1/2 inch long ; stigma 1/4 inch long, red, spirally recurved. Extends as a wild plant from Transylvania to the Crimea, Caucasus, and Armenia. It was introduced into English gardens in 1765, and is a well known and very distinct type, clearly marked at a glance in all stages of growth by its very numerous narrow leaf-segments.   It flowers with officinalis at the middle of June.   P. laciniata and P. hybrida of Pallas are two varieties with broader leaf-segments than in the type.

11. P. anomala. Linn., Mant., 247 ; Anders., Mon. No. 3 ; Bot. Mag., t. 1754 ; Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 314 ; Ledeb., Fl. Ross., i., 74. P. intermedia, C. A. Meyer, in Led.. Fl. Alt., ii., 377; Led., Fl. Ross.. i., 74. P. Fischeri, Hort.—Root-tubers large and fusiform ; stolons none. Stem as tall as in officinalis, glabrous, always 1-headed. Leaves 10—12, cut into numerous confluent lanceolate acute segments ¼ 1/3 inch broad, 1 ½ 2 inches long, 30—40 to the lower leaves, dark green above, pale green below, glabrous on both surfaces. Flower solitary, with the outer sepals produced into long, often compound leafy points. Corolla bright crimson, 4 inches in diameter, with about eight obovate or oblong petals 1 — 1 ½ inch broad. Stamens 1/6 – 1/4 inch long. Follicles about three, ovoid, 1 inch long, 1/2 inch in diameter, arcuate, tomentose or glabrous. Occurs as a wild plant in Europe, sparingly in Lapland, and in Asia it is spread all through the western half of Siberia, especially in the Ural and Altai ranges of mountains, and round Lake Baikal. It is a well marked type, midway between P. tenuifolia and P. officinalis, and is common in English collections, but there are two varieties—one with hairy and one with naked follicles, so that it has just as good a right to be classified in the former section as here.

12. P. Emodi, Wall., Cat. Ind., No. 4727 ; Hook. fil. and Thoms., Flora Brit. Ind., i., 30; Hook. fil., in Bot. Mag., t. 5719. P. officinalis, Hook. fil. and Thoms., Fl. Ind., 60, non Linn.—Stems 2—3 feet long, quite glabrous, bearing 2—3 flowers when at all luxuriant. Leaves thin in texture, glabrous on both surfaces, dark-green above, pale green beneath ; the lower with about 20—30 lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate very confluent acuminate segments, 1—1 ½ inch broad. Flower white, 3—4 inches in diameter, several of the outer sepals produced into long leafy, sometimes compound points ; the petals -unequal obovate, the outer 1 ½ —1 ¾ inch broad.  Follicles 1—2, ovoid, tomentose, 1/2 inch in diameter ; stigma very small, orbicular, straight, with the two sides folded together. A native of the west temperate Himalayas, at an altitude of 5000 to 10,000 feet. A fine well-marked plant, still rare in English gardens, most like P. albiflora of the common cultivated kinds.

13. P. officinalis, Retz., Obs., 33 ; Anders., Mon., No. 3 ; Bot Mag., t. 1784 ; DC., Prod., i., 65 ; Reich., Ic. Germ., t, 127, fig. 4743.—Stem stout, one-flowered, glabrous, 2—3 feet long.  Leaves 5—6 to a stem, glabrous, dark green above, pale green beneath, the lowest with 15—20 lanceolate or oblong lanceolate acute confluent leaflets, 1—2 inches broad.  Sepals very unequal, the inner orbicular and obtuse, the outer leal-like and acute. Petals dark crimson, much imbricated, obovate, or nearly orbicular, 1 ½ —2 inches broad. Stamens ½ inch long; anthers rather shorter than the filaments. Carpels 2—3, ovoid, densely tomentose, erect-arcuate, when fully mature 1 inch long, ½ inch in diameter;  stigmas ovate, complicate, crimson, recurved. The commonest species in gardens (see fig. 153), especially in the double-flowered form, and spread as a wild plant throughout the southern half of Europe. It begins to Sower in our London gardens about the middle of May. P. lobata, Desf., DC. Prod., ! 66, is apparently a variety of officinalis, of dwarfer habit than the type, with narrower more numerous leaf-segments.

14. P. peregrina, Miller ; Anders., Mon., No. 11 ; Bot. Mag., tab. 1050 ; DC., Prod., i., 66.—Stem 1 ½ —2 feet long, 1-headed, pubescent towards the top. Leaves 5—6 to a stem, dull green and glabrous above, pale green and pilose beneath, the lower with 15—20 oblong acute segments, 1—1 ½ inch broad, the longest 3—4 inches long. Peduncle short. Inner sepals orbicular, 1/4—1 inch long, outer with leafy points. Petals S—10, bright crimson, 2 inches long, 1 ½ —2 inches broad. Follicles 2—3, tomentose, erect-arcuate, 1 inch long, ½ inch in diameter ; stigmas crimson, folded together, and hooked, 1/8 inch long.Widely spread through the South of Europe, and common in cultivation. It is not distinct from P. officinalis as a species in any broad sense. I do not know how to distinguish it from P. pubens, Sims, in Bot. Mag., t. 2264; or P. banatica, Rochel, Reich., Ic. Germ,, tab. 125, fig. 4741 c.


fig. 153.—Paeonia corallina Flowers crimson

15. P. paradoxa, Anders., Monogr., No. 12 ; DC., Prodr., i., 66 ; Sweet., Brit. Flow.Gard., t. 19.—Stem 1—1 ½ foot long, hairy in the upper part, with never more than a single flower. Leaves 5—6 to a stem, green, and glabrous above, glaucous and pilose beneath, the lower cut up into 30—40 acute confluent segments, 1/2—3/4 inch broad, the largest not more than 1 ½ —2 inches long. Peduncle so short that the flower is amongst the upper leaves. Calyx and corolla just like those of officinalis and peregrina. Follicles 2—3, ovoid, tomentose, erect-arcuate.  This not in any broad sense more than a variety of peregrina. Anderson identifies it with the Paeonia promiscua of Lobel, Gerard, and Ray, and says:—“ This is the latest in coming into flower of all Paeonies, excepting albiflora; its flowers seldom expand before the latter end of May. It forms a dense tuft of leaves and flowers more dwarf than humilis, and is the lowest in stature of all the species excepting mollis. From peregrina it differs in the leaves being small, ovate, and more glaucous ; the leaflets more divided, crowded, and imbricated; the ultimate fissures shallow and obtuse ; in the germens being close pressed together and very little separated even in the ripe follicles." Our most typical wild specimens are from Montpellier and Trieste. A full account of it will be found in Sweet's Flower Garden under the figure cited.  It is not recognised as a species by any of the recent Continental Flora writers.“

16. P. mollis, Anders., Mon., No. 13; DC. Prod., i., 66 ; Lodd., Bot. Cab., t. r263 ; Sabine, in Bot. Reg. t. 474.—Stem about 1 foot long, 1-headed, densely pilose. Leaves 5—6, crowded, dull green above, glaucous and densely pubescent beneath, cut into 30—40 oblong lanceolate segments ¾ —1 inch broad. Flower like those of officinalis and peregrina, but smaller and duller in hue.   Follicles 3—3, densely pilose, erect-arcuate. Not distinct from the last in any broad sense. Anderson, who first separated it, writes:—" This plant is at first sight distinguishable from its congeners by its short, rigid, upright stalks, the dark bluish-green colour of its leaves, which are flat, compact, very much divided, the laciniae crowded, overlapping each other, very woolly on the under-side, nowise bordered with red, as in most of the others, and, the lateral leaflets being almost sessile, the exterior side of each disposed to be decurrent.   It is the most dwarf of all our species, seldom reaching 18 inches in height, even in our gardens. The flower is small, of a dark dull purplish-red, by no means handsome.“ It has not been claimed as a wild plant by any of the authors of recent Floras of the southern countries of Europe.


Subgenus II. P.AEONIA proper.—Stems herbaceous. Root a duster of fusiform fibres.  Disc not produced into a cup.

Section 3.—Follicles tomentose, spreading when mature from the very base.

17. P. corallina, Retz., Obs. iii., 34; Anders., Monogr., No. 6 ; DC, Prodr., i., 65 ; Reich., Ic. Germ., tab. ia8, fig. 4745; Engl, Bot., tab. 1513, 3d edit., t. 50. P. mascula, Miller, Gard. Dict., edit. vi.. No. i.— Tubers of the root fusiform.  Stem 3—3 feet long, glabrous, never more than 1-headed. Leaves 5—6 to a stem, glabrous on both sides, moderately firm in texture, dark green above, pale green beneath, the lower simply biternate, with nine distinct oblong acute segments, the side ones 1—1 ½ inch broad, the end one sometimes 3 inches broad, and reaching a length of 3—4 inches. Peduncle short, so that the flowers do not much overtop the leaves. Outer sepals foliaceous, lanceolate, simple inner obtuse.   Petals 6—8, obovate or suborbicular 2—3 inches long, crimson or rose-red. Follicles 3—4 rarely 5. spreading from the base when fully mature decurved, densely villose, it inch long; stigma small scarlet, folded together, recurved. Spread as a wild plant across Europe from France to Asia Minor. Not so well known in gardens as P. officinalis. In company with Russi and triternata it may be known from all the other species by its leaves, the segments of which, casual exceptions apart, are quite distinct from one another at the base, and nine in number in the fully developed lower leaves.

18. P. Russi, Bivon, Man. Sic., iv., 13 ; DC., Prodr., i., 66; Gren. and Godr., Fl. France, i., 53.—Stem l—1 ½ foot long, always 1-headed.  Leaves thin in texture, green and glabrous above, pale green and densely pubescent beneath, the lower exactly bitemate, with nine ovate or oblong distinct acute segments, 1—2 inches broad, the end one 3—4 inches long. Flower like that of P. corallina. Follicles 3—4, finely pubescent, spreading from the base when mature, finally 1 ½ inch long. A native of Corsica, Sicily, Sardinia, and Algeria, Scarcely more than a variety of P. corallina.

19. P. triternata, Pallas, Nov. Act. Petrop., x., 312 ; DC., Prodr., i., 65 ; Ledeb., Fl. Ross., i., 73. P. corallina var. triternata, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i., 97. P. daurica, Andr. , Bot. Rep., t. 486; Bot. Mag., t 1441; Anders., Monogr., No. 7.Root -tubers thick. Stem 1 ½ —2 feet long, glabrous, never more than 1-flowered, Leaves 5—6 to a stem, glabrous, pale green above, glaucous beneath, with broad oblong or obovate leaflets, obtusely rounded at the apex, with a small cusp, not confluent at the base, the side ones often a inches broad, and the end one obovate or orbicular, 3—4 inches long and broad. Outer sepals foliaceous; inner obtuse. Petals 6—8, obovate, rose-red, 2—2 1/2 inches long. Follicles 2—4, densely tomentose, spreading from the base when mature; stigmas small, ovate, folded together, recurved. A native of the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and the Crimea. It is a near ally of P. corallina, with which Boissier now unites it. The name daurica, under which Anderson describes it, was given to it under a mistake as to its native country. Anderson remarks upon it, " Though in general habit a good deal resembling P. corallina, it is nevertheless essentially distinct from that species in having the leaves always rounded, partially cordate, oblique and much undulated ; whereas those of the former arc more or less pointed, and nearly flat, the spherical, brownish-black, reticulated seeds, and the yellow tint of its leaves, stalks and germens, would otherwise characterise it. Its leaves are diposed to wither at the points, and to remain longer on the stalks than those of the others. Its Sower is of a pleasant pale rose colour. Amongst seedlings it is seen to vary in the degree of undulation of its leaves, but retains its essential character throughout."

20. P. arietina Anders., Monogr., No. 10; DC., Prod., i., 66. P. tartarica, Miller, Gard. Dict., edit. vi. No. 5 (Icones, t. 199). P. cretica (Clusius), Sabine ; Lindl., in Bot. Reg., t. 819.   P. lobata, Reich., Ic. Germ., t. 123, fig. 4741 a, non Desf.—Stem 3—3 feet long, hairy upwards, with never more than a single flower.  Leaves 5—6 on a stem, green and glabrous above, pale green, or rather glaucous and pubescent beneath, the oblong or oblong-lanceolate segments copiously confluent, and not more than 1—1 ½ inch broad, about thirty in the fully developed lower leaves. Corolla dark red in the type, 4 inches in diameter. Follicles 3—4, densely tomentose, ovoid, spreading almost horizontally from the base, when mature 1inch long, ½ inch diameter; stigma small, dark red, recurved. This is well-known in gardens, but il is not distinct from peregrina in a broad sense, and no doubt is included under that name by Boissier and other authors of Floras from the various regions of Southern Europe. Miller's figure just cited represents excellently the ordinary garden form of the plant. P. cretica is distinguished from the type by "its dwarfer habit, flesh-coloured flowers changing to nearly white, and shining coriaceous flat blistered leaves, which are very glaucous beneath."

21. P. decora, Anders., Monogr., No. 9; DC., Prodr., i., 65 , Boiss., Fl. Orient., i., 98.—Stem 2—3 feet long, glabrous, not bearing more than a single flower. Leaves 5—6 to a stem, pale green or slightly glaucous, red at the margin, glabrous, or slightly pilose beneath, the segments numerous and very confluent, 30 —40 to the fully-developed leaves. Outer sepals broad and foliaceous. Petals 6—8, crimson, 1 1/2—2 inches long, and not more than an inch broad in our wild specimens.   Follicles 2—3, tomentose, ovoid, very thick, diverging widely when mature. The alliance of this is with P. arietina. I have not had the opportunity of studying it alive, and it has not been figured, but it is maintained by Boissier as a distinct species. Both the end and lowest side fegments of the fully developed leaves have five divitions, which run together so as to form a broad wing all the way up the midrib. Our wild dried specimens came from Anatolia and Servia. Andersen identifies it with the Paeonia byzantina of Clusius (Hist., p. 279), and says of it —" It is remarkable for the elegant stateliness of its habit, each stalk, accompanied by its horizontal leaves, diminishing as they ascend, and terminated by its flower (which is rather smaller than is usual in the genus), supported on a long peduncle, exhibits somewhat of a pyramidal figure. Its leaflets are constantly more or less longitudinally indexed or concave; in this respect it resembles the last described (humilis), but differs from it in the leaflets being broad and obtuse. The follicles arc less pubescent than those of the three following species (arielina, peregrina, and paradoxa), but more so than those of the preceding. They are very large, and at maturity diverge widely."

22. P. Broteri, Boiss. et Reut., Diag., 4 ; Willk. et Lange, Fl. Hisp., iii., 975. P. lusitanica, Miller, Gard. Dict., edit. ii.. No. 6? P. officinalis, Brotero, Fl. Lusit., ii., 299.—Stems glabrous, 1-flowered, 1—2 feet long. Leaves 6—8 to a stem, glabrous on both surfaces, bright green above, glaucescent beneath, the terminal oblong acute segment 1 – 1 ½ inch broad at the middle, the fully developed lower leaves with about 20 segments, scarcely nt all confluent at the base, but the tipper side ones cuncately decurrent on the rachis. Outer sepals very foliaceous. Petals 6—8, obovate-cuneate, about 2 inches long, crimson or rose-red, rarely white. Follicles 2—4, densely pilose,1 ½ inch long, spreading horizontally from the base when mature.A native of the mountainous and subalpine regions of Spain and Portugal. It is intermediate in general character between officinalis and corallina, neither of which are admitted by Willkomm and Lange as natives ol the Iberian peninsula.

This concludes the series of known species. J. G. Baker.