Davis, P.H. & Cullen, J. 1965 Paeonia vol. 1, p. 204-206 in :

Davis, P.H. (ed.) 1965- Flora of Turkey and the Eastern Aegaean Islands. Vols. 1-9 Edinburgh, University Press


Perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, compound, exstipulate. Flowers usually solitary, hermaphrodite, large, actinomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 5, free, heteromorphic, persistent in fruit. Petals free. Stamens numerous, centrifugal. Carpels free, borne on a fleshy disc. Fruit a group of 2-8 follicles, each with several seeds.



Perennial herbs, usually with woody stems dying down in the winter, or evergreen with erect, tuberous stocks and fleshy roots. Leaves bitemate or further divided. Flowers 7-14 cm across, petals white or red. Stamens numerous, centrifugal. Carpels 2-5, glabrous or tomentose, borne on a fleshy disc. Fruit a group of horizontally spreading follicles with the seeds in two rows.

Stern, F. C. 1946. A Study of the genus Paeonia.



Carpels pubescent, the apex truncate, not gradually tapered into the style; flowers more than 6 cm across



Petals white



3. rhodia



Petals red



Leaves with minute bristles along the main veins above; ultimate leaf segments shallowly cut, the leaflet appearing serrate



4. peregrina



Leaves without such bristles; ultimate leaf segments deeply cut, leaflets not

appearing serrate



Leaflets ± orbicular, undulate



2. daurica



Leaflets broadly to narrowly elliptic, not undulate



1. mascula



Carpels glabrous, the apex gradually tapered into the style; flowers less than

6 cm across



Style and stigma c. 7 mm, curved only at the apex



5. kesrouanensis



Style and stigma shorter, curved near the base



6. turcica

1. P. mascula (L.) Miller, Gard. Dict. No. 1(1768).

Syn: P. officinalis var. mascula L., Sp. Pl. 530 (1753).

Leaves simply biternate, or with some leaflets further divided, thus with 9-16 narrowly to broadly elliptic segments, glabrous to pilose beneath. Flowers 8-14 cm across, petals red. Follicles 3-5, 2-4 cm, white-tomentose, with a truncate apex and sessile stigma. - A complex species, of which 2 subspecies occur in Turkey:



Leaves pilose beneath with 12-16 segments



subsp. arietina



Leaves glabrous or sparsely pilose beneath with 9-10(-12) segments



subsp. mascula

subsp. mascula.

Syn: P. corallina Retz., Obs. Bot. 3: 34 (1783); P. kevachensis Azn. in Mag. Bot. Lap. 16: 7 (1917); P. corallina var. caucasica Schipcz. in Not. Syst. Leningrad 2: 45 (1921)! P. caucasica (Schipcz.) Schipcz. in Fl. URSS 7: 28 (1937); P. corallina var. orientalis Thiéb., Fl. Lib.-Syr. 1: 37 (1936); P. arietina var. orientalis (Thieb.) Stern in J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 68:127 (1943); P. kurdistanica Zoháry in Pal. J. Bot., Jer. ser. 2:155 (1944).

Ic.: Stern, Study of Paeonia 68-69 (1946). Fl. 4-6. Oak and beech scrub, rocky slopes, 1000-2200 m.


Described from Switzerland.

S. Anatolia, Kurdistan, Islands.

C3 Antalya: Teke Da., 1100-1200 m, D. 15199!

C6 Hatay: Antakya to Yayladag, 1000 m, D. 27159!

Seyhan: d. Bahçe, Dumanli Da., 1300 m, D. 26879!

C9 Bitlis: d. Kotum, Karz Da., 2200 m, D. 24603!

Is.: Samos, D. 1639!

Scattered through Europe, Caucasia, Cyprus, N. Iraq, N. Iran.

subsp. arietina (Anders.) Cullen & Heywood in Feddes Rep. 69:35 (1964).

Syn: P. arietina Anders. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 12: 275 (1818); P. peregrina sensu Boiss., Fl. Or. 1: 97 (1867) non Miller; P. russii sensu Hal., Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 35 (1901) non Biv.

Ic.: Stern, Study of Paeonia 81-82 (1946). Fl. 6-7. Scrub, thickets, rocky slopes, 1000-2000 m.

Described from plants cultivated in Britain.

N. & Inner Anatolia, Mysia, Islands.

A5 Amasya: Mersifon, Maniss.!

A7 Gümüþane: Gümüþane:, Bourgeau 5!

A8 Gümüþane: S foot of Soganli Da., 1700 m, D. 31990!

Trabzon: between Bayburt and Rize, 1800 m, Furse & Synge 805!

B1 Balikesir: Ida (Kaz Da.), Sint. 1883:459!

B5 Yozgat: Yozgat, Curtis 116!

B7 Tunceli: Pülümür to Selepur, 1900 m, D. 29299!

B8 Elazig: 32 km W of Bingol, D. 24809!

B9 Bitlis: Karz Da., 2000 m, D. 24556!

Is.: Samos, Rech. 3889.

Italy, Balkan Peninsula. The two subspecies show much less morphological overlap in Turkey than they do in the Balkans, where many specimens cannot be assigned with certainty to either. Subsp. arietina is found mainly in the less arid parts of the Ir.-Tur. region, and is the commonest peony in Turkey.

2. P. daurica Andrews in Bot. Rep. 7: t. 486 (1807). Syn: P. triternata Pallas in Nov. Act. Petrop. 10: 312 (1792); P. corallina var. triternata (Pall.) Boiss., Fl. Or. 1: 97 (1867).

Ic.: Stern, Study of Paeonia, 70 (1946).

Differs from P. mascula subsp. mascula in its almost orbicular, undulate, always glabrous leaflets, and chromosome number (see below). Fl. 4. Scrub, s.1.-1300 m.

Described from plants grown in Britain.

S. Anatolia, Paphlagonia.

A6 Samsun: Samsun, Tobey 101 (2n = 10)!

C5 Icel: Findikpinariköy, 1200 m, D. 26501!

C6 Hatay: d. Belen, Karlik Tepe, 1250 m, D. 27104!

Seyhan: d. Bahce, Dumanii Da., 1300 m, D. 26879!

Crimea, Transcaucasia, N. Iran, Jugoslavia. Very doubtfully distinct from P. mascula, but generally maintained as a separate species on account of its chromosome number (2n = 10; 2n == 20 in all races of P. mascula, cf. Stern, op.cit.). The Turkish and Transcaucasian specimens show some character overlap with P. mascula and further work is needed.

3. P. rhodia W. T. Stearn in Gard. Chron. 150:159 & f. 77 (1941).

Leaves usually with numerous, narrowly oblong to elliptic leaflets, entirely glabrous. Flower c. 7 cm across, petals white. Carpels 2-3, white- tomentose. Follicles with a truncate apex and sessile stigma. Fl. 5. Fields and hills.

Type: Rhodes, Nadelholzerwälder an monte Profitze, c. 600 m, 1938, Engelhardt & Landby (holo. K!).

Is.: Rodhos, Mt. San Elio pres Salakos, 11 vi 1870, Bourgeau 2!

Endemic to Rhodes; related to P. mascula and to P. clusii Stern from Crete.

4. P. peregrina Miller, Gard. Dict., No. 3 (1768).

Syn: P. decora Anders. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 12: 273 (1818); P. officinalis sensu Bornm. in Feddes Rep. Beih. 89(1): 15 (1936), non L.

Lower leaves divided into 17-30 narrowly elliptic segments, the ultimate segments short, broadly triangular, presenting a serrate appearance, weakly villous to glabrous beneath, and with minute bristles along the main veins above. Flowers 7-13 cm across, cup-shaped. Petals red. Follicles white-tomentose, 2-3-5 cm, with a truncate apex and sessile stigma. Fl. 4-5. Fields etc., 1000-1200 m.

Scattered W of lat. 36° E, not in the S.

A2(A) Bursa: Bursa, Post !

A4 Kastamonu: Daday to Eflani, 1000-1200 m, D. 38613!

B1 Çanakkale: nr. Erenköy, Sint. 1883: 334!

B5 Yozgat: Yarimca Çayir, Curtis 193!

Italy, Romania, Balkans.

5. P. kesrouanensis Thiéb., Fl. Lib.-Syr., 1: 37 (1936).

Lower leaves with 9-14 elliptic-ovate leaflets, glabrous or pilose beneath, sometimes subglaucous. Flowers small, c. 10 cm across. Petals red. Carpels 1-2, glabrous, attenuate at the apex, the style and stigma c. 7 mm, curved only at the apex. Fl. 4. Type: Lebanon, Feitroun, Thiébaut.


C6 Hatay: Antakya to Yayladag, 1000 m, D. 27158 (2n = 20)!

W. Syria. In the Amanus this species was collected with P. mascula subsp. mascula which flowers there 2-3 weeks later. E. Medit. element.

6. P. turcica Davis & Cullen in Notes R.B.G. Edinb. 26: 176 (1965).

Differs from P. kesrouanensis in having the style and stigma shorter, up to 5 mm, curved near the base. Type: Turkey

C2 Denizli, Boz Da. above Abbas, 1500-1800 m, 16 vii 1941, Davis 13359 (holo. E!).

Lycia, Caria.

C3 Antalya: Finike, Orhan Uzunköy, vii 1948, Heilbronn !

Endemic; and extremely closely allied to P. kesrouanensis. E. Medit. element.