Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

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The Manual of the American Peony Society


Copyright 1928 by American Peony Society

289_biographical sketches


THE following biographical sketches have been obtained by the Editor from letters and publications and are believed to be correct in all details. If errors should be discovered, the Editor hopes that he will be promptly notified so that they may be corrected in future editions of this work.

These sketches were originally intended to include only those who had introduced, named, and offered peony seedlings on the market, but there are a number of people who are prominently connected with the development of the peony in America, but who are not introducers, and it therefore seems advisable to extend the list. Only those foreign growers who have introduced peonies described in this work are mentioned in the sketches.

Unfortunately, it cannot include all who have been associated with the peony, and, undoubtedly, some names have been overlooked. For these unintentional omissions, the Editor hopes to be excused.

andrews, D. M., was born in Fayette County, Illinois, in 1869. He was interested in botany as a young man and collected plants for dealers. In 1893 Mr. Andrews went to Colorado where he collected, grew, and introduced to commerce native western plants. In 1900 he purchased a dozen peony plants and has since been experimenting with the breeding of new varieties. Mr. Andrews is owner of the Rockmont Nursery at Boulder, Colorado.

auten, edward jr., was born in 1881, at Princeville, Illinois. He fraduated from Harvard University in 1904 and is at present in the anking business at Princeville. Mr. Auten planted his first peonies in 1910 and began experimenting with seedlings in 1916. He has received for his originations an Honorable Mention from the American Peony Society, the Midwest Peony and Iris Society, and a special prize offered by the Brand Peony Farms for a seedling of the Japanese type. Mr. Auten is a member of the American Peony Society's special committee investigating Japanese and Single types.

barr & sons. This is one of the oldest and most reliable concerns in England. They are nurserymen and seedsmen, and their name is connected with many of the early peony introductions. Mr. Peter Barr of this concern was an enthusiastic collector and originated many beautiful plants. Their address is n, 12, and 13 King Street, Covent Garden, London, W. C. 2, England.

berneche, E. J., was born in Canada, January 7, 1864. He first became interested in peonies at Olympia, Washington, in 1905 when he bought his first plants. In 1906 he imported roots from Holland and





Japan and several of his introductions are seedlings from these. In 1909 Mr. Berneche was awarded a silver medal for the best collection of peonies at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition. In 1914 he sold most of his plants to the Weed Nursery but in 1920 he again entered the Peony business and his present address is Route 6, Box 504, Portland, Oregon.

betscher, carl, was born in Dover, Ohio, and educated in the public schools there. In his "teens," Mr. Betscher writes, he saw the possibilities in peonies. Previous to 1900 he bought a large collection and he now has twenty acres in peonies, some of which are his own seedlings. Mr. Betscher's address is Dover, Ohio.

bonnewitz, lee R. No reply has been received to our request for data for biographical sketch, but Mr. Bonnewitz advertises himself as follows: "A garden enthusiast sixty years young. A successful dry goods merchant since 1890. A Presbyterian, Rotarian, and Mason. After a nervous breakdown he sought health in the great outdoors, and became interested in flowers, and particularly in irises and peonies. Even though his hobby developed into a. national business, he still delights in growing his favorites."

Mr. Bonnewitz was elected a Director in the American Peony Society in 1918, and President in 1919 and 1920. His address is Van Wert, Ohio.

boyd, james, was born in Boston, Massachusetts on February i, 1858, where he was educated and resided until 1881 when he removed to Philadelphia. He was interested in several manufacturing corporations in Philadelphia, Wilmington, and New York, and was a member of the Executive Council of the Philadelphia Board of Trade for many years. In 1917 he retired from active business and since that time has given much attention to horticultural matters in which he has always been greatly interested. Mr. Boyd commenced growing peonies in 1905 and has since accumulated a large collection of choice varieties. He has been President of The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society since 1918. In 1917 and 1918 he was President of the American Peony Society and Treasurer in 1926 and 1927. He has been a Director in the American Iris Society and American Rose Society since 1920. In 1924, The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society awarded him the Schaffer Gold Medal for "earnest effort and success in advancing the interests of horticulture," and in 1927 he was awarded their Centenary Gold Medal for "his unique service in putting the Society in its present flourishing condition and for his valuable and long-continued service in many fines of horticulture." Mr. Boyd is a member of the Massachusetts, New York, and American Horticultural Societies and the American Orchid Society. He is also a Member-at-Large of the Garden Club of America. He resides at Haverford, Pa.

brand, A. M., was born at Faribault, Minnesota. February 28,1871. He graduated from the Law School of the University of Minnesota in 1895. Mr. Brand acquired his knowledge of peonies at an early age from his father, O. F. Brand, with whom he was associated in business from the year 1899 until the latter's retirement in 1911. Since the




death of his father, A. M. Brand has operated the Brand Peony Farms. The Brand introductions received three Certificates of Merit at the London (Ontario) Show and a Gold Medal, a Silver Medal, and three Awards of Merit at the National Peony Show in St. Paul, 1923. Mr. Brand has been a Director of the American Peony Society since 1921. He was Vice-President 1923-24 and President 1925-27. His address is Faribault, Minn.

brand, oliver franklin, was born in Lawrence County, New York, in 1844. After serving in the Civil War he became an agent in Wisconsin for the New York nursery of Ellwanger & Barry. He established a general nursery business in 1867 at Faribault, Minn. In 1899, from varieties planted especially for the purpose, Mr. Brand gathered four quarts of seed. These seedlings bloomed in 1903 and among them were Brand's Magnificent, Richard Carvel, and others. Mr. Brand retired from business in 1911 and his work of producing new varieties has been continued by his son, Mr. A. M. Brand, associated with him since 1899. Mr. Brand died in January, 1921.

calot, jacques. He resided at Douai, France, and about 1850 secured the collection of peonies belonging to the Comte de Cussy. During the next twenty years he introduced about twenty new varieties, a few of which are still among our better peonies. If any reader can supply additional information in regard to M. Calot for future editions, it will be much appreciated.

christman, W. F., was born at Kent, Ohio, September 6, 1877. In 1908 he became associated with A. B. Franklin, of Minneapolis, Minnesota, raising peonies, which had become a hobby with him for a number of years. He remained with Mr. Franklin three years, and then removed to Faribault, Minnesota, where he was employed for a year by the Brand Peony Farms. Leaving Faribault he started in business in Robbinsdale, Minnesota, in partnership with T. A. Kenning, of Minneapolis, Minnesota, under the name of "Sunny Acres Nursery." Raising peonies, iris, and gladiolus for commercial trade is their specialty.

In June, 1922, he was elected Corresponding Secretary of the American Peony Society, and in June, 1924, he was elected Secretary and Editor, which position he still holds. For several years prior to assuming his duties as Secretary of the American Peony Society, he served as Secretary of the Northwestern Peony and Iris Society. His address is Robbinsdale, Minnesota.

cooper, henry S., was born at Attica, Indiana, June 10,1858. He, with other members of his family, was largely interested in the Cooper Underwear Company, and at the time of his death was president of that organization. He was well known for his many charities and greatly mourned by thousands of friends when he died. In 1924 he was elected Treasurer of the American Peony Society, and had only held the office a few months before his death, which occurred at Kenosha, Wisconsin, October 25, 1924. An extended obituary will be found in Bulletin No. 23 of the American Peony Society for February, 1925.




crawford, mrs. william (Anna Boyd), was born in Indiana in April of 1861. She was educated in the public schools of Mishawaka and taught school for a number of years in South Bend, Indiana. In 1890 Mrs. Crawford began cultivating peonies. She now has a large collection at the Crawford Gardens in LaPorte, Indiana.

crousse, felix, was born in Nancy, France, October 2, 1840. His parents were gardeners and his entire life was devoted to horticulture. After completing his studies, he established himself in business in 1865. He originated many varieties of Chinese peonies, tuberous begonias, and pelargoniums. He worked in close association with Victor Le-moine. In 1872 he inherited the peony collection which had passed from the Comte de Cussy to Jacques Calot. He continued to send out Calot's seedlings until 1879 and sent out a large number of his own. from 1882 to 1889. Mr. Crousse was considered one of the leading representatives of horticulture in France, and his renown extended to England and America. He died at Nancy, April 25, 1925.

dessert, auguste, was a grandson of M. Etienne Méchin, and worked with his grandfather in improving and developing the peony in France. Their nurseries at Chenonceaux were well known and from them have emanated many well-known varieties which are described in this book. M. Dessert recently sold his business to Messrs. Doriat & Sons and the plantings have been transferred from Chenonceaux to Lapalisse.

doriat & sons. This firm has recently purchased the establishment of M. Auguste Dessert which was founded at Chenonceaux in 1848. They are continuing the business of peony-growing at Lapalisse which is situated near Vichy, the well-known watering-place. Their address is Lapalisse (Allier), France.

earnshaw, rev. J. westby, was born in Ravenfield, Yorkshire, England, January 9, 1846. The Rev. Mr. Earnshaw came to America in 1870 and was graduated from Union Theological Seminary of New York City in 1876. He held various pastorates until forced to retire from the active ministry because of ill health. Since then he has resided in Lowville, New York, where he has had peonies in his garden since 1909. Mr. Earnshaw has never entered the commercial field but some of his seedlings have been placed on the market by other growers.

engle, W. J., was born in Greene County, Ohio, January 20, 1859. He received his education at Lebanon Normal School, Lebanon, Ohio, and at Otterbein University, Westerville, Ohio. He first became interested in peonies in 1892. Mr. Engle has always been in business near Dayton, Ohio where he is now associated with his son in growing peonies and iris. His address is R. R. 8, Dayton, Ohio.

farquhar, james F., was born in Fyvie, Scotland, and learned his profession from his father .who was head gardener at Fyvie Castle in Aberdeenshire. After coming to America, he was for a few years head-gardener at Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1882, he formed, with his brother, the R. & J. Farquhar Company, of Boston,




and was actively engaged in business until shortly before his death, which occurred in May, 1921. In the summer of 1918 Mr. Farquhar was awarded first prize for a new peony seedling and a silver medal for a collection of peonies by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. He was a member of that Society as well as of the Society of American Florists and Ornamental Horticulturists, the Gardeners and Florists Club of Boston, and the Horticultural Club.

farr, bertrand H., was born October 14, 1863, at Windham, Vermont. When he was five years of age his parents moved to Wisconsin and later to Webster City, Iowa. After attending high school and seminary, Mr. Farr went to Boston for two years at the New England Conservatory of Music. In 1885 he established a music business in Webster City, but later removed to Reading, Pa. In 1896 he purchased a home and garden in Wyomissing, a suburb of Reading, and began to collect varieties of peonies and irises. He soon sold the music business and devoted his entire time to the production and sale of hardy plants. Mr. Farr's wonderful work in connection with peonies and the American Peony Society is fully described in the History of the American Peony Society beginning on page I. He was president of this Society from 1909 to 1916 and one of its Directors at the time of his death. From its formation in 1920, he was a director in the American Iris Society. He died at Wyomissing, Pennsylvania, October n, 1924. An extended obituary may be found in Bulletin No. 23 of the American Peony Society for February, 1925.

fewkes, arthur howard, was born in Newton, Massachusetts, May 16, 1856. He was educated in the schools of Newton. Mr. Fewkes has been connected with the greenhouse and florist business all his life. He became interested in peonies in the early eighties, through reading accounts in the Garden Magazine (English) of peony shows held in London and Paris. His interest in the peony has always been amateur and never commercial. He states that it has been his hobby and the source of much pleasure and diversion. Mr. Fewkes has made many exhibits of peonies, with varying success as to awards, and has introduced some new varieties, one of which was Avalanche, from a plant obtained from Dessert. He was awarded a certificate by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for it. For nearly thirty years, Mr. Fewkes was connected with the Plant and Flower Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and for many years he was its Chairman. It was during that period that Milton Hill and Walter Faxon received certificates from the Society and Dr. Minot's Mrs. C. S. Minot a silver medal. The American Peony Society is the outcome of casual talk on the subject between Mr. C. W. Ward and Mr. Fewkes as they examined the various exhibits at the Boston Peony Show, in 1902. Mr. Fewkes states that, in looking back over the years, the exhibits of peonies made by T. C. Thurlow, the father of the present peony specialists, stand out most prominently in his memory as arousing his enthusiasm for the peony. Mr. Fewkes has been prominently identified with the American Peony Society since its organization. He was the first Secretary, serving from 1903 until 1910, Vice-President




from 1915 until 1920, and President in 1921 and 1922. In 1927 he was elected Honorary Vice-President for life. Mr. Fewkes is recognized as one of the leading authorities in regard to the peony in America. His address is Newton Highlands, Massachusetts.

franklin, A. B., was born in Waterville, New York, January 18, 1858. He removed with his parents to Michigan and later engaged in various commercial enterprises, devoting eleven years to the hardware business in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 1898 he established the Franklin Nursery at Richfield Station, Minneapolis, where he now specializes in peony-growing.

Goos & koenemann. This is a very old and reliable concern. They have introduced several beautiful varieties and they take a great interest in their work. Their address is Niederwalluf am Rhein, Germany.

guerin, modeste, lived in Paris in 1835. He made rapid advances in improving the peony with plants brought from China and Japan. From them until 1866 he introduced more than forty new varieties. Guérin produced the first varieties with a touch of yellow in them.

gumm, walter L., was born at Marseilles, 111., in 1857. He attended the public schools and the Mary A. Pickens Seminary in Marseilles. Mr. Gumm has been in the hardware business for fifty-three years. His collection of peonies, which numbered ten varieties in 1883, now consists of some eleven hundred. His seedlings were commended at the National Peony Show at Fort Wayne. Mr. Gumm has lived in Remington, Indiana, since 1882, and is a director and treasurer of the Commercial Peony and Iris Growers Association.

harding, alice (Mrs. Edward Harding), was born in Keene, New Hampshire, and has resided for many years in New York City. Her country home and garden is at Plainfield, N. J. Mrs. Harding is an enthusiastic amateur, and while both the tree and herbaceous peonies have been the particular objects of her devotion for many years, she also specializes in the culture of iris and hybrid lilacs. Of all these specialties she has large and fine collections. Mrs. Harding is an Honorary Member of the American Peony Society, a Member-at-Large of the Garden Club of America, and a member of the American, Massachusetts, and New York Horticultural Societies. She has many international affiliations, being a member of the Royal Horticultural Society of England, an Honorary Member of the Soci6t£ Centrale d'Horticulture de Nancy, France, a Dame Patronesse of the Societ£ Nationale d'Horticulture de France, and has recently been made a Chevalier du MeVite Agricole by the Minister of the French Republic in recognition of her services to horticulture. Mrs. Harding is well-known to all lovers of the peony through the delightful books which she has written: "The Book of the Peony" in 1917, and "Peonies in the Little Garden" in 1923. The latter is particularly interesting and instructive to the novice, and for this book she was awarded a medal by the Soci6t6 Nationale d'Horticulture de France. Both books are beautifully illustrated and contain much information of value to the peony grower that cannot be found elsewhere. In 1918, Mrs. Harding




offered a prize of one hundred dollars for the best new peony of American origin not then in commerce. This was won by E. J. Shaylor for the beautiful seedling which he named in honor of the generous donor of the prize. In 1922, Mrs. Harding, while in France, offered a prize to the Soci6t6 Nationale d'Horticulture de France for the best new French seedling. This was won by Emile Lemoine who named his seedling in Mrs. Harding's honor, "Alice Harding." Lemoine considers this one of his finest introductions. In June, 1928, the Directors of the American Peony Society awarded Mrs. Harding a Gold Medal for her two interesting and instructive books on peonies. Mrs. Harding has done much to increase the interest in peonies both in this country and abroad. Her address is Burnley Farm, R. D. No. I, Plainfield, N. J.

harrison, rev. C. S., of York, Nebraska, died February 23,1919, at the age of eighty-seven. In 1904 he had published a manual on peonies which did much toward awakening the present widespread interest in the flower. In 1912, The Rev. Mr. Harrison was made an Honorary Member of the American Peony Society.

hollis, george, was born at Randolph, Massachusetts, June 23, 1839, and died at South Weymouth, Massachusetts, April 20, 1911. During his early years he was associated with his father in farming and horticulture and later became a florist, erecting his first greenhouse in 1865. In 1889 he became a member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and was awarded several prizes for his seedlings. The Hollis varieties are well-known in Europe as well as America.

kelway & son. About 1863, Mr. James Kelway began to accumulate quite a collection of peonies and soon after began to make a specialty of peonies. In 1884 he offered two hundred and fifty varieties in his catalogue. Of these, sixty-three were new and single, and forty-one doubles of his own raising.* Their address is Langport, Somersetshire, England.

lemoine, emile. Born at Nancy, France, January n, 1862. He was the only son of the celebrated Victor Lemoine. He was educated at Nancy, and after obtaining his diploma in natural sciences, assisted his father in research work and hybridizing. Since the father's death in 1911, the son has continued the business and has made several additions to the Lemoine introductions. In 1921, he received from the French Government "La Cravate de Commandeur du Mérite Agricole." M. Emile Lemoine's address is 140 de la Rue du Montet, Nancy, France.

lemoine, pierre Louis victor, was born at Delme, France, on October 21, 1823. He studied at the College of Vic-sur-Seille and then served an apprenticeship under E. A. Baumann, horticulturist and botanist at Bollwiller (Haute-Rhin). Then he passed some years with the celebrated Van Houtte of Ghent. He established himself at Nancy, 1849-1850. M. Lemoine was assisted in his wonderful hybridization work by his wife and his son, Emile. In 1886 he removed his establishment to 140 Rue du Montet. In 1885 he was made a

*Watson, 1904.




Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and in 1894 an officer of the same. In England he was awarded the Veitch Medal. He was also awarded the George Robert White Medal by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and was yice-President of the^Societe Centrale d* Horticulture de Nancy. His wonderful success in hybridizing lilacs, philadelphus, and peonies is known throughout the horticultural world. He died at Nancy, France, October 12, 1911, at the age of eighty-eight.

little, harry F., was born in Goodland, Indiana, Tune 14, 1878. His common school education was begun in the local public school and finished at Todd Seminary for Boys, Woodstock, Illinois. From there he entered the Preparatory School of Northwestern University at Evanston, Illinois, and later continued his college course in the College of Liberal Arts at Northwestern.

After leaving school he entered the general mercantile business with his father at Goodland, Indiana, in which work he was continuously engaged until he closed out the store to move to New York State.

Mr. Little's work with peonies began as a garden hobby, and for many years he devoted his spare time to the intimate study of the flower. His collection has become one of the most complete in the country and includes most of the new and rare kinds obtainable. The demand for his surplus plants gradually drew him into the business commercially, and in 1924 he issued his first catalogue.

In the fail of 1925, Mr. Little became associated with Mr. F. A. Goodrich in the organization of Indian Spring Farms, Inc., a commercial enterprise, to carry on the growing of fine flowers in a large way, and his entire plantings were combined with the Goodrich collection at Indian Spring Farms, Baldwinsville, New York. All his time is now devoted to the management of that business.

mechin, etienne, was born in 1815 and died in 1895. M. Méchin was contemporary with Modeste Guerin, Verdier, and Calot. He made his first plantings of peonies about 1840 and his collections were well known in 1860. Until he died, M. Mechin was a passionate lover of those beautiful flowers that he cultivated during fifty years. During this period he was continually adding to the value of his collection.

minot, dr. charles sedgwick, was born in 1852 and spent much of his early youth on the large estate of his father in West Roxbury, Massachusetts. He was graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the youngest member of his class, and, in 1883, after a period of years spent in study with scientists at home and abroad, he joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School as instructor in histology and embryology. Upon the publication of his most important work, "Human Embryology," he was promoted to a full professorship and was later appointed Exchange Professor to the University of Berlin. Doctor Minot was during his lifetime the president of various scientific societies and received honorary degrees from a number of universities in recognition of his achievements. In his garden he found necessary relief from his work. A biographer writes: "It was Dr. Minot's firm conviction that every hard worker, but especially every scientific investigator, should have a most engrossing hobby to supply a forcible




restraint to his brain activity. His own hobby was his garden at Readville, where he turned his attention to growing rare varieties of peonies with great success. It was his delight to invite his neighbors on a certain day in spring to see with him the result of his care and skill." Dr. Minot was awarded several prizes for his exhibits and new seedlings by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. He died in 1914.

neeley, dr. john H., was born at Lancaster, Ohio, October 27,1870. He graduated from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1895 and was an instructor in the Department of Dentistry in that institution for a number of years. Later he opened a dental office in Paulding, Ohio, where he is at present engaged in practice. Doctor Neeley made his first planting of peonies in 1900 and named his first seedlings in 1918. At Fort Wayne, in 1926, he was awarded the American Peony Society's Silver Medal for the best display of not over fifty varieties in the advanced amateur class. Doctor Neeley is a member of the Society's Committee for Judging New Seedlings.

nieuwenhuyzen, abraham, was born in Boskoop, Holland, in 1877. He learned the nursery trade under Jac Akerboom in his native city, where he had a wide experience in growing various nursery stock but made a special study of the peony, importing at one time one hundred varieties from America. In 1919, his origination, Dr. H. van der Tak, was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the Holland Bulb Society, and in 1920 the same peony received a silver cup at the International Flower Show at Antwerp, Belgium. Mr. Nieuwenhuyzen was treasurer of the Holland Peony Society for four years previous to his coming to America in 1921. In America his introduction, Mr. L. Van Leeuwen, which had been awarded several Certificates of Merit in Holland, was judged the finest crimson at the National Peony Show in 1923. Mr. Nieuwenhuyzen is now associated with the American Rose & Plant Company at Springfiled, Ohio, where he is continuing his work in hybridizing.

oleson, Miss may J. S., was born January 29, 1880, on her father's farm, where she still resides, east of Ripon, Wisconsin. She was educated in the public schools near her home. In 1905 Miss Oleson began growing peonies and she now has a collection of some three hundred varieties.

peterson, william A., was born April 29,1867, in Chicago, Illinois. He was educated in the public schools of that city and at an early age entered the nursery business of his father who had worked in the gardens of European peony-growers. In 1886 the nursery's stock of a dozen varieties was increased to over three hundred by importations from Europe. Mr. Peterson later increased the number to six hundred by further importation, and the files of the nursery recorded the testing of over twelve hundred varieties. Mr. Peterson has sold his gardens and retired from business. He resides at 510 Wellington Avenue, Chicago, Illinois.

pleas, mrs. sarah A., is now living in Whittier, California. She was formerly of Dunreith, Indiana, where she grew and introduced




her seedlings to trade. In June, 1916, Mrs. Pleas was conferred an Honorary Membership in the American Peony Society. She dates her interest in the planting of seedlings back to 1855. Mrs. Pleas is over eighty years of age.

richardson, john, was born in Boston, February 19,1798. He died in Dorchester, Massachusetts, September 22, 1887. Of a wealthy old Boston family, he never actively engaged in business and was able to devote most of his life to the cultivation of his garden. The peony was his favorite flower and he produced many superior varieties. From 1877 until the time of his death Richardson was raising seedlings and it is interesting to note that at the same time, in France, such men as Calot, Crousse, and M6chin were experimenting with new varieties. Richardson's originations received many awards from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. He named very few of them and consequently the names which many of them bear were given them by Richardson's friends, Mr. John C. Hovey and Prof. Robert Tracy Jackson, who received plants from him.

riviere. The Editor regrets that at the time of going to press he has been unable to obtain any data from which to compile a biography of this peony grower and introducer. If any reader can supply such information for future editions, it will be much appreciated.

rosefield, J. F.,* was born in Sweden, August 29,1855. He came to America in 1869 and attended public school in Chicago for a brief time. Mr. Rosefield was engaged in the manufacture of cigars for a time but retired from that business in 1882. He purchased a farm near West Point, Nebraska, and in his gardens planted some twenty varieties of peonies. In 1898 he offered his increased stock to wholesale trade, later removing to Omaha, Nebraska, where he continued in business until 1917. Since then Mr. Rosefield has retired, but he is devoting peonies at the World's Exposition in St. Louis in 1904.

sass, hans peter, was born September 19, 1868, in the village of Alt Dunvestedt, Germany. He was educated in the village school and in a private high school in the town of Rendsburg near by. In 1884 his parents emigrated to America and settled on a farm near Omaha, Nebraska. Mr. Sass did general farming until 1903, when he purchased 80 acres of land near Washington, Nebraska, and began devoting considerable time to flower-growing. He had always been a student of botany, and the publications of Rev. C. S. Harrison, of York, Nebraska, aroused his attention toward peony-breeding. Mr. Sass received mention for nine seedlings at National Peony Shows and was awarded a bronze medal at the Des Moines Show of the Midwest Peony and Iris Society in 1925 for an exhibit of seedlings. Mr. Sass is the owner of the Midwest Gardens, at Washington, Nebraska.

saunders, A. P., was born in London, Ontario. His father and mother were both enthusiastic botanists, the former serving as Director

*Mr. Rosefield's name was originally Rosenfeld, and a number of his peonies were introduced before his name was changed early in 1925.—editor.




of the Experimental Farms of Canada; and consequently, the son was brought up in an atmosphere of plant-growing ana collecting.

He is now Professor of Chemistry at Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, and an enthusiastic grower of peonies. He says: "My horticultural interest remained necessarily dormant during my student years, but when, in 1900,1 had come to Clinton to live, and had a house and some ground, I began growing plants, peonies among them. In this severe climate many other plants failed, but peonies, both herbaceous and tree types, succeeded. So I drifted more and more into peony culture. I began growing seedlings about 1905 and began systematic work on species hybrids in 1917. My interest is now pretty much concentrated in this field, and I sow very little seed of Chinese peonies except such as has been interbred with other species."

By his able editing Prof. Saunders was largely responsible for the success of the "Bulletin of the American Peony Society." To him credit is likewise due for conceiving the idea of the symposiums of 1916-1921. A mass of statistics was gathered and his was the able mind which compiled them and then made them of such great value to all peony-lovers.

Prof. Saunders served as a Director of the American Peony Society, 1909-23, and again 1925-28. He was Secretary, 1911-23, and in 1928 was elected Vice-President. Prof. Saunders has had several awards for his introductions, and in June, 1928 he was awarded the American Peony Society's Gold Medal for his success in hybridizing peony species. He was also given the President's Cup by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at their exhibition in June, 1928.

secor, eugene, was born near Peekskill, New York, May 13,1841. He went west at the age of twenty-one and settled at Forest City, Iowa, his home at the time of his death. He attended Cornell College at Mount Vernon, Iowa. In 1900 he became interested in peonies and began the work which later resulted in the introduction of the Secor seedlings to the market. After his death, May 14, 1919, his work was taken up by his daughter, Miss Nina Secor. Mr. Secor was an officer and director in the Iowa Horticultural Society for many years and was affiliated with similar organizations during his lifetime.

secor, Miss nina, was born at Forest City, Iowa in 1886. Upon the death of her father, Eugene Secor, in 1919, Miss Secor took up the work of raising and introducing the Secor seedlings. She has been assisted in this work by Lee R. Bonnewitz, of Van Wert, Ohio, and W. A. Sisson of Rosendale, Wisconsin.

shaylor, egbert jerome, was born at Ashtabula, Ohio, in 1843. He died at Auburndale, Massachusetts on October 24, 1926. For some time Mr. Shaylor was a salesman for the Meriden Cutlery Company of Meriden, Connecticut; but in 1898 he purchased land in Auburndale and there established the gardens which are now the Shaylor & Allison Nurseries. He was the originator of some thirty varieties of peonies and was also active in importing the best foreign varieties for the American market. An extended obituary will be found in Bulletin No. 29, of the American Peony Society for December, 1926.




stevens, G. A., is connected with the J. Horace McFarland Co., or Harrisburg, Pa., the printers of this Manual. Mr. Stevens is a recognized authority on roses, and is the author of "Roses in the Little Garden," and numerous magazine articles concerning roses. He is closely associated with Dr. T. Horace McFarland, the Editor of The American Rose Annual, in the production of that book and devotes a large part of his time to Breeze Hill Garden where one of the most notable collections of plants in the country is grown. Mr. Stevens was engaged by the Editor of this Manual to prepare, from direct observation, the original descriptions of the peonies described in this book. In the course of this work Mr. Stevens has visited many of the largest and most important peony collections in the country, and has assembled a mass of notes covering more than 700 varieties.

terry, H. A., was born in Cortland County, New York, July 12, 1826. When he was ten years of age he went with his parents to Michigan and seven years later to Illinois. He spent his young manhood there and in states on west. He combined the sale of small fruit and nursery stock with the seed business and in 1855 established a nursery at Crescent, Iowa, specializing in oeonies. "Father Terry," as he was called during the latter part of his life, was for many years the only seed merchant in the Missouri River Territory. He died February 14, 1909, at the age of eighty-three.

T. C. thurlow's sons (Cherry Hill Nurseries). This concern was established in 1832 by Thomas C. Thurlow and the business is now ably conducted by his sons, George C. and Winthrop H. Thurlow, assisted by David C. Stranger. They have introduced many very beautiful varieties which are listed and described in this book. Their address is West Newbury, Massachusetts.

van leeuwen & son, inc. This concern was established by Mr. Leonard Van Leeuwen in 1902 under the name of L. Van Leeuwen & Son. The business has grown rapidly and was incorporated in 1925. The present officers are Messrs. John Van Leeuwen, Leonard Van Leeuwen, Jr., and Karel Van Leeuwen. Their home nursery is in Sassenheim, Holland. They have a large bulb nursery at Stony Creek Mills, near Reading, Pennsylvania. They have introduced a number of peonies noted in this Manual. Their New York office is Care of Copex Co., Inc., 111 Broad Street.

verdier, victor. One of the first collections of modern peonies was under the care of M. Jacques, gardener to King Louis Philippe, of France. M. Jacques" collection was inherited by his nephew, M. Victor Verdier, after the dethronement of the king in 1848. Sixteen of M. Verdier's best varieties were put out between 1855 and 1861.

vories, laurence A., was born in St. Joseph, Missouri. He has served in several public offices and has been judge of the Circuit Court of Buchanan County, Missouri since 1916. Judge Vories planted his first seedlings after 1908 and first exhibited them at the National Show of the American Peony Society at Des Moines, Iowa. His seedlings have won prize awards at Des Moines, Philadelphia, and Peoria, Illinois.




ward, charles willis, was born in Michigan in 1856. He established the Cottage Gardens Nurseries at Queens, Long Island, after he became interested in floriculture, and was one of the men who founded the American Peony Society. Mr. Ward was elected first President of the Society in 1903 and was its Honorary President from 1909 until his death in 1920. Details of Mr. Ward's part in the founding of the Society may be found in the chapter dealing with its history.

welsh, ward, was born in 1864 and died in November of 1927. At the time of his death he was president of the Good & Welsh Peony Farms, Inc., at Springfield, Ohio. Mr. Welsh was prominent in the affairs of the American Peony Society, serving as a director and a member of the seedling committee. His best Known introduction is the peony John M. Good which he named for the man from whom he received nis early training as a peony-grower. The loss of Mr. Welsh was deeply felt by the Society.

wettengel, charles NEiDEL,was born April 22,1872, in Macomb, Illinois. He was educated at Western Illinois Normal School in the same city. In 1898 he bought his first two dozen peonies and has since tready enlarged his collection. Mr. Wettengel entered the commercial eld in 1910 and is the introducer of several new varieties. He is the owner of "Peonydale" at Macomb, Illinois.

wister, john C., was born in Germantown, Philadelphia, March 19, 1887. He graduated from Harvard in 1909, and took a graduate course in the School of Landscape Architecture in the Bussey Institute. He also studied in the New Jersey Agricultural College, New Brunswick, N. J., and has traveled extensively, visiting the principal growers of irises and peonies both in this country and abroad. In 1910 he began growing peonies and has given special attention to tree peonies since 1919. His collection of the latter embraces over two hundred varieties, one of the largest in the country. Mr. Wister was Secretary of the American Rose Society in 1921 and 1923. He has been President of the American Iris Society since its formation in 1920. In 1927 Mr. Wister was awarded the Schaffer Gold Medal of The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, especially for his efforts in developing Iris culture in America, and his contributions to the world's appreciation of the Tree Peony, and in 1928 was elected Secretary of that Society. He was awarded the Foster Memorial Plaque by the Iris Society (England) in 1927. His address is Wister Street and Clarkson Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.