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For medicinal purposes peony's cultivation technology

Shen Bao An

(Anhui Province Wuhu institute for drug control 241,001)

Liu Chang Geng

(South Anhui Province Ling Xian drug company 242,400)

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    Abstract this article had reported my federal highway raw material for medicine male peony tree bark original plant for medicinal purposes peony's habit of growth, the reproduction method, the planter, the plant disease prevent and control, the recovery and the habitat processing technology.

    Key word for medicinal purposes peony cultivation technology

The male peony tree bark is one kind of commonly used Chinese native medicine, has alleviates fever ??, invigorates the blood ?? effect, may use in to treat warm poisonous sends the spot, spits blood ??, a night of heat is early cool, ?? ??, ?? the pain after, ??the poisonous matter of a boil and the injury grief. According to research, Anhui Tongling County Pheonix mountains and south Ling Xian bifurcation ?? for medicinal purposes peony Paeonia ostii T. Hong et J. X. Zhang ssp. lishizhenensis B. A. Shen dry root skin, for our country tradition place raw material for medicine "phoenix peony tree bark". In national peony skin raw material for medicine, its quality best, the output is biggest. According to the Tang Dynasty "the Four tones of classical Chinese Book on Chinese medicine" records the for medicinal purposes peony to say that, "Now leaves ?? is good, bai Zhebu, red advantage; Leaves and the state, the Xuan prefecture and is good." According to the author textually researches, now Tongling County Pheonix mountains and south Ling Xian Yashan, in Tang Dynasty for Xuan prefecture ??. Thus it can be seen, early was more than 1,000 year ago our country Tang Dynasty Xuan prefecture once has had the wild for medicinal purposes peony distribution. Afterwards because received "the Four tones of classical Chinese Book on Chinese medicine" the propaganda influence, the male peony tree bark was the commonly used Chinese native medicine in addition, the wild resources could not satisfy people's for medicinal purposes demand quantity but gradually to transfer the big area manual cultivation. According to the author investigation and study, the Anhui Province Tongling County Pheonix mountains and south area the Ling Xian Yashan's natural condition extremely is suitable the for medicinal purposes peony to grow, and to the seed reproduces, its original plant shape characteristic is stable.
1 plant shape
The for medicinal purposes peony and original variety Yangshan peony Paeonia ostii T. Hong et J. X. the Zhang   main difference lies in the leaf is one to the bipinnate duplicate leaf, the bipinnate duplicate leaf, the small leaf long reaches 14cm, the width reaches 8cm; The petiolule long reaches 35mm; The flower is bigger, diameter 14 - 20cm, flower petal long 7 - 10cm; ?? fruit 5 - 8, long 3.5 - 4.5cm; Plants Zichang 9 - 12mm.
2 habits of growth
The for medicinal purposes peony cold resistant (- 12 ?), the drought resistance, fears water-damaged, regardless of ??, the sunny slope, every is the soil fertile, the soil layer deep, the soil texture is loose, drains water and ventilates the performance good neutrality or the slight acidity ???? may plant. The strong acid soil, salt alkaloid, under the clay, the swampy ground and the tree shade not suitably plant.
3 reproductions methods
The for medicinal purposes peony's root usual is unitary, extremely few furcations, but in its fruit has the more growth good mature seed. Therefore, usually uses the seed reproduction production in its place raw material for medicine production area.
3.1 seeds gathering and processing
The for medicinal purposes peony the second year spring generally has 70% adult plant after the field planting to blossom and bear fruit, the third year spring starts to enter the abundant flowering season, each blooms 1 - 3 flowers, fourth may bloom 5 - 15 flowers to sixth year spring each, in each colored fruit has the seed 30 - 70 grains. When late July the seed is mature, picks the booth to put in the room, its thickness take 20cm as suitable. In the room do not have too to ventilate, maintains the certain humidity. If the weather too is dry, suitably sprays the few water, every day changes 1 - 2, in order to avoid gives off heat, after treats 10 - 15 days, the fruit voluntarily splits, then except the husk, the collection seed, same year carried on the fall sowing. Before sowing seeds, the seed must with ?? carry on the stacking to store.
3.2 sowing seeds grows seedlings
From late August may sow seeds to mid-November, take September in, last ten days of the month as best seed-time. The choice grain is full, the black luminous seed carries on sowing seeds. Before sowing seeds soaks seeds for 24 hours with 45 ? lukewarm water. Generally uses ?? or ??. A seedling furrow of width take 1.3 - 2 m as suitable.
3.2.1 ??
Row spacing 30cm, distance between plants 20cm, acupuncture point assuming glyph arrangement. Digs the round hole, hole deep approximately 12cm, diameter approximately 5 cm, the hole bottom must be smooth. Each fertilization in pre-dug holes enters the right amount at the end of oil cake, the calcium superphosphate takes the base fertilizer, on covers 3 cm to be thick ??, compaction leveling. Then under each hole about the seed 20 grains, the seed distributes evenly in the hole planted agent, the maintenance is distanced 2 - 3 cm. Each Chinese acre uses type and quantity approximately 150kg.
3.2.2 ??
According to row spacing 25cm, broadcasts breadth 10 - 20cm, crosswise opens 6 cm deep sowing seeds ditch. Evenly broadcasts into in the ditch the seed. Each Chinese acre uses the type and quantity is about 100kg.
After ?? or ?? the grave mound, causes a furrow of surface smoothly to be not hollow immediately, again caps the bushes. The second year from late February to the beginning of March seedling namely unearthed growth, after two years may transplant the field planting.
For medicinal purposes peony besides above seed reproduction production, also may carry on a minute root to reproduce, the production area custom called "hits the old bundle". Generally chooses 3 - 4 years fresh adult plant, digs takes its entire, will advocate ?? under supplies for medicinal purposes, will intercept the stem base and a root forehead connecting with place belt lateral root's section (long approximately 12 - 15cm) the achievement plants the root, will retain the thin root as far as possible, which naturally will grow is carrying on along the shape it plants. Field management with seed reproduction. The minute root reproduction coefficient is minimum, is not suitable the large-scale raw material for medicine production. At present the production area is usual has not used this law production.
4 planters technologies
4.1 elects and entire
The general choice topography higher, the soil layer deep, the sunlight is sufficient, the draining water good slope place, the slope in 10 - 45° may. Take 15 - 20° barren hills gentle slopes as good. After chooses the barren hill land parcel, the winter or the early spring cut down the weed thorn, flattens, after treats slightly does carries on burns down. Like this both eliminated has survived the winter the insect egg, and loosened the open land, was advantageous for digs. In field planting first 6 - in August, each month wants deep plowing place, altogether turns three time. First time digs 60 - 75cm deeply, the soil block is not suitable ??, in order to exposes to the sun. Second secondary thin turns, the depth with front, sundry goods and so on flange elimination stock, in particular ??? by all means must cleans out. Third secondary thin turns, the depth is 50 - 60cm then, the leveling makes the high furrow, a furrow of surface should repair and maintain for the turtle back shape, in order to drains water guards against soaks, furrow of width 1.5 - 2 m, ditch deep 30cm, extends 40cm, the ditch sole must be smooth.
4.2 field planting
Generally around October, ??? the seedling will dig carries on transplants. According to ??? the 35cm scoop, hole deep 20 - 35cm, puts in the hole take the seedling not curving as, in the hole executes into the right amount base fertilizer (each Chinese acre place to execute 150kg vegetable seed oil cake). Each hole plants into the sturdy seedling 2 or thin seedling 3. Puts when the seedling should cause the seedling to assume ???? arranges Yu Xuenei. When earth fill to one half, upward gently promotes with the hand the seedling, causes seedling bud distance furrow of surface 3 cm then. Then the lamination turns the soil again the compaction, causes the root to stretch and densely meets with the soil.
4.3 field management
Front the field planting second year start, topdressing two, first time germinate every year in the spring, second time when fall winter fallen leaf. The fertilizer take the vegetable seed oil cake primarily, spring uses the fat quantity as each Chinese acre 75 - 100kg, also coca Shi Renniao and yellow cow dung. The winter uses the fat quantity for each Chinese acre 100 - 150kg, also coca Shi Xufen. Applies fertilizer when should pay attention the oil cake puts to leaves outside root 6 cm in the earth, guards against burns the root, creates the adult plant necrosis. Center ?? the grass, the clear ditch earths up, also is the noticeable increase production measure, should maintain center does not have the weed, does not harden. Specially the summer autumn cannot have the farmland overrun with weeds the phenomenon appearance, otherwise not only influence output, moreover also affects the raw material for medicine quality. Each time
After the rain does when wants the prompt clear ditch to earth up, is sure not to create draining water to be impeded, causes the plant disease to occur. When the field planting third, four years spring blossom, besides remain plants the adult plant, may completely excise the flower bud. Before every year November, should ?? the withered and yellow branches and leaves.
5 plant diseases prevent and control
5.1 plant diseases
5.1.1 leaf spots
Sends to the summer solstice to the Beginning of Autumn between. At the beginning of leaf surface when appears the yellow or the tan small spot, after 1 - 3 days become the black spot, hereafter gradually expand the ataxia the wheel grain, serious time leaf blade completely dry Jiao Diaoluo. Weather dry and hot, the spread especially is rapid, frequently puts in order the piece land parcel completely to catch an illness. Preventing and controlling method: (1) Clean countryside. (2) Sprays the leaf surface with 1:1:150 Bordeaux mixture, 7 days 1, including spurted several times. At that time if the temperature were high, might use the dilution was 1:1:200 Bordeaux mixture sprays.
5.1.2 root-rots sickness
According to the examination, root-rot sickness is one kind of fungus attack for medicinal purposes peony plants the object to be the result of. This sickness starts the critical moment to discover that, treats when sees the morbid state from the leaf blade, its Pi Duoyi festers the black, in diseased plant root all around soil the common decadent lattice ??. This sickness for the common plant disease, assumes disperses in the natural occurrence, the adult plant catches an illness the initial period leaf blade to wither, subsequently withers falls, finally completely dry dies. If is inferior to time prevents and controls, will spread to the periphery adult plant. In particular cloudy rainy day soil excessively wet, the spread is more rapid. Preventing and controlling method: (1) The dog days of summer (in July) should turn exposes to the sun the land parcel. (2) After discovered the plant disease, should promptly eliminate the diseased plant and its all around the disease-carrying soil periphery, and waters with 1:100 ferrous sulfate solution
The adult plant, guards against the spread infection.
Besides above common plant disease, but also has the anthrax, the rust and peony Bai Juanbing. But because it occurs few. Therefore slightly but does not state.
5.2 insect pests
The main insect pest has ??, the canker-worm, the volume moth, ? a kind of young insect and so on. Generally may use the Dibaichong to carry on preventing and controlling.
6 recovery and habitat processing
The field planting latter 3 - 5 years then harvest, as are good take 4 years. In August the recovery called "bends down the goods", moisture content more, is easy to process, nature strong color white, but its quality and the output are somewhat low. In October the recovery called "fall goods", quality of material harder, the processing is more difficult, but its quality and the output are higher. Excavates must elect in the cloudless day to carry on, completely digs out the adult plant root, shakes the soil, cuts the fresh root, sets coolly place piles up 1 - 2 days, waits it slightly to lose the moisture content to change (custom to call softly "runs water"), except must the root (Dan have), to get hold of the fresh root with the hand, ?? the root skin, extracts the core of wood. The high quality raw material for medicine phoenix peony tree bark ??, directly does not season. Root strip comparatively rough and straightforward, mealy fuller root skin,
Scrapes off the semblance cork with ?? or the garrulous bowl piece, seasons, namely for blows the peony tree bark, also the name blows Dan, the powder peony tree bark. The root strip thinner, mealiness is worse or has the insect scar the root skin, does not blow the cover, directly seasons, calls continually the peony tree bark, also calls ?? the peony tree bark, ?? Dan, company Dan. When processing, thick is thin and the mealy size according to the root strip, separates the booth according to the different commercial specification to expose to the sun, in order to sells.
The for medicinal purposes peony yields per mu fresh root 800 - 2000kg. Booklet doing rate is 30 - 35%.


1 Shen Bao An When treasure country medicine research, 1,995; 6 (supplement): 56 - 57
2 Hong Tao and so on Plant research, 1,992; 12 (3): 223 - 225