Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur S

Sabine — Joseph Sabine, 1770-1837, England

SabineJ,1816,An Account of the Double Herbaceous Peonies Now Cultivated in England,Trans Hort Soc London ,2, p273-280

SabineJ,1817, Paeonia paradoxa,

SabineJ,LindleyJ 1824 ,Bot Reg Paeonia cretica t. 819 ;

SabineJ, 1826, On the Paeonia Moutan or Tree Peony, and its varieties,Trans Hort Soc London, 6, pp465-492

SabineJ ,1834, ??? Paeonia cretica ,elegans ,fulgida

Saint-LagerJB,1884,Recherches historiques sur les Mots ' Plantes males' et ' Plantes femelles.',Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon, 11 (for 1883), 1-48.

SakaiY, NagaseH, OseY, ++,1990,Inhibitory action of peony root extract on the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene,Mutat Res Jun;244(2):129-34

Sakamoto S, Kudo H, Suzuki S,++,1996, Pharmacotherapeutic effects of toki-shakuyaku-san on leukorrhagia in young women., Am J Chin Med;24(2):165-8

Sakata, Yusuke; Aoki, Noriaki; Tsunematsu, Sadanobu; Nishikouri, Hide; Johjima, Tomio 1995, Petal Coloration and Pigmentation of Tree Peony Bred and Selected in Daikon Island (Shimane Prefecture),Journ Japan Soc Hort Sci vol 64:2 pp 351-357 [Abstract: Petal coloration and pigment constitution in 38 tree peony cultivars (cvs.) from Daikon Island in Shimane Prefecture were observed Hues of flower color ranged from red through reddish purple to purple in most cvs. Chromas and values ranged from dull to deep or dark in red-flowered cvs., very pale to dull in pink-flowered cvs. and deep to dark in purple-flowered cvs. As regards pigmentation, both 3,5-diglucoside (3G5G) and 3-glucoside (3G) of pelargonidin (Pg) were dominant in almost all of the red-flowered cvs. Pink-flowered cvs. mainly contained the 3G5G of Pg or peonidin (Pn) but the amts. of anthocyanins were low. In purple-flowered cvs., Pn3G5G was dominant but some deep-colored cvs. had a high content of 3G of cyanidin. As the petal color became bluer, the Pg3G and Pg3G5G contents decreased and, conversely, the Pn3G5G contents increased. Based on the pigmentation in tree peony cvs. from Daikon Island Pg3G-rich 'Hohki', 'Shin Shima no Kagayaki' and 'Kohko Jishi' are recommended as useful parental cvs. to obtain more vivid red colors, and 'Hohrei' with a high Pn3G5G content may be used as a parent to obtain bluer colors in future breeding.]

Sakhokia, M.F. 1982, Ljubov Manucharovna Kemularia-Nathadse (K 90-letiju so dnja rozhdenija) [L.M. Kemularia-Nathadse - to her 90th birthday]. Zam. Sist. Geogr. Rast. 38:51-62 (Rus) Protrait, Bibliography

Salisbury, 1796, Prodr. 375 .

Salisbury, 1805, Parad. Land. P.edulis t. 78 ;

Salisbury, Annales de la Société Royale d'Agriculture et de Botanique de Gand, Journal d’horticulture by Charles Morren (ed.). Gent, Local de la Société (Casino), etc., 1846, volume 2 (plate 64). Paeonia wittmanniana Hartwiss ( andere Quelle: Salisbury?,1846,Ann. de Gand. 2, t. 46 ;)

Salisbury, 1849, Ann. de Gand. 5, t. 265 .

Salm-Dyck — Joseph Prince Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck, 1773-1861, Deutschland

Salm-Dyck J,1834, Hortus Dyckensis Paris 1824, P.microcarpa , multifida, subternata .. pp. 190-193 & 365-370 .

Sampaio,1909-11, Prodromus Florae Portug. (in Ann. Sc. Acad. Polyt. Porto, 4-6), 8 .

Sampaio,1913, Lista Esp. Rep. Herb. Portug. 53 .

Sampaio,1931, Adic. e Corr. Flora Portug. (in Bull. Soc. Brot., Ser. 2, 7), 30

Samuelsson, L.-E., Schenkmanis, U. Pioner, 135 pages illustrated, Carlssons Stockholm 1999. ISBN: 91-7203-322-3

Sánchez-Lafuente, A. M., Rey, P. J., Alcántara, J. M. and Valera, F. 1999. Pollination ecology and the role of flower visitors in a "few-flowered" perennial herb Paeonia broteroi (Boiss. & Reut.) Paeoniaceae. – Écoscience 6: 163-172.

Sanchez Lafuente Alfonso M : Floral variation in the generalist perennial herb Paeonia broteroi (Paeoniaceae): Differences between regions with different pollinators and herbivores AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 89(8):1260-1269 2002

Sang,-C.K.; Choi,-B.J.; Koh,-J.C. Effects of sucrose pulsing on blooming and flower qualities according to flower bud maturity stages in Paeonia lactiflora 'Euisung jaerae'. Taegu Hyosung Catholic University, Kyongsan (Korea Republic). Faculty of Horticultural Science Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-for-Horticultural-Science (Korea Republic). (Dec 1998). v. 39(6) p. 794-798.. 3 illus.; 6 tables; 23 ref. Summaries (En, Ko). (Korean)


Sang, Tao 1995, Phylogeny and Biogeography of Paeonia (Paeoniaceae) (Concerted Evolution) ,Ohio State University Dissertation PhD Columbus, Ohio


Sang, Tao, Crawford J D, Stuessy T F, 1997, Chloroplast DNA Phylogeny, reticulate Evolution, and Biogeography of Paeonia (Paeoniaceae), Am J Botany 84:(8) 1120-1136 (PDF: ) (local copy .pdf)


Sang, Tao, Donoghue M J , Zhang D M, 1997,Evolution of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes in Peonies (Paeonia): Phylogenetic Relationships of Putative Nonhybrid Species, Mol Biol Evo 14(10) 994-1007 [Summary: Alcohol dehydrogenase genes were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced from 11 putative nonhybrid species of the angiosperm genus Paeonia. Sequences of five exons and six intron regions of the Adh gene were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of these species. Two paralogous genes, Adh1A, and Adh2, were found; an additional gene, Adh1B, is also present in section Moutan. Phylogenetic analyses of exon sequences of the Adh genes of Paeonia and a variety of other angiosperms imply that duplication of Adh1 and Adh2 occurred prior to the divergence of Paeonia species and was followed by a duplication resulting in Adh1A and Adh1B. Concerted evolution appears to be absent between these paralogous loci. Phylogenetic analysis of only the Paeonia Adh exon sequences, positioning the root of the tree between the paralogous genes Adh1 and Adh2, suggests that the first evolutionary split within the genus occurred between the shrubby section Moutan and the other two herbaceous sections Oneapia and Paeonia. Restriction of Adh1B genes to section Moutan may have resulted from deletion of Adh1B from the common ancestor of sections Oneapia and Paeonia. A relative-rate test was designed to compare rates of molecular change among lineages based on the divergence of paralogous genes, and the results indicate a slower rate of evolution within the shrubby section Moutan than in section Oneapia. This may be responsible for the relatively long branch length of section Oneapia and the short branch length between section Moutan and the other two sections found on the Adh, ITS (nrDNA), and matK (cpDNA) phylogenies of the genus. Adh1 and Adh2 intron sequences cannot be aligned, and we therefore carried out separate analyses of Adh1A and Adh2 genes using exon and intron sequences together. The Templeton test suggested that there is not significant incongruence among Adh1A, ITS, and matK data sets, but that these three data sets conflict significantly with Adh2 sequence data. A combined analysis of Adh1A, ITS, and matK sequences produced a tree that is better resolved than that of any individual gene, and congruent with morphology and the results of artificial hybridization. It is therefore considered to be the current best estimate of the species phylogeny. Paraphyly of section Paeonia in the Adh2 gene tree may be caused by longer coalescence times and random sorting of ancestral alleles.] summary on the web:[]


Ferguson, Diane M & Tao Sang.Testing hypotheses of hybrid speciation in peonies (Paeonia; Paeoniaceae) using the low-copy nuclear gene alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh). - [Summary: DNA sequence data from the low-copy nuclear gene alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) were used to test the putative hybrid origin of several diploid and tetraploid species of peonies belonging to Paeonia section Paeonia (Paeoniaceae). Two paralogous loci (Adh1 and Adh2), duplicated prior to the diversification of Paeonia species, were amplified with locus-specific primers and cloned for one or more accessions from each species. All distinct clone copies were included in a single simultaneous parsimony search for each locus. Adh1 and Adh2 support that several tetraploid species, including the "arietina" species group (P. arietina, P. humilis, P. officinalis, P. parnassica), P. peregrina, and P. banatica, are of allopolyploid origin. After the initial hybridization event, tetraploid peonies may have gone on to speciate and further hybridize, creating new species such as P. officinalis. For putative hybrid diploids, distinct sequences were found at the Adh2 locus for P. emodii, and Adh1 sequence polymorphism was detected for P. japonica and P. obovata. This may imply that heterozygosity resulting from hybridization can be maintained at a nuclear locus but homogenized at the other following genome rearrangement in a diploid hybrid. Overall, Adh2 corroborates many of the findings based on Adh1; however, the tempo of gene duplication and deletion at that locus is much more dynamic than Adh1, with many pseudogenes found in several species.]

Tank, David & Tao Sang. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene in Paeonia (Paeoniaceae): molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility, [Summary] The nuclear encoded glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene (GPAT) has been found to be single copy in a number of angiosperm families. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic utility of the GPAT gene in determining the interspecific relationships of the angiosperm genus Paeonia. An approximately 2.3 kb fragment of the GPAT gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from all diploid and selected tetraploid species of Paeonia. The GPAT gene may exist as a single copy in some species of Paeonia, but constitutes a small gene family in others. Two distinct genomic clones of P. anomala containing the GPAT gene have been characterized and suggest that the gene underwent an ancient duplication followed by the formation of a pseudogene in one copy. Blast sequence similarity analysis suggests that the GPAT pseudogene may contain a large retrotransposon-like insertion that could have triggered the pseudogene formation. The rate of evolution of the GPAT gene was determined to be greater than that of the nuclear ITS region in Paeonia, demonstrating the potential of the GPAT gene to be used in resolving low-level taxonomic relationships of angiosperms. When compared to existing gene phylogenies, such as the cpDNA matK gene, nuclear ITS region and the alcohol dehydrogenase genes, the GPAT gene phylogeny yiel

Sang, T., Ferguson, D. : Speciation through homoploid hybridization between allotetraploids in peonies (Paeonia) PNAS: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 98(7):3915-3919 2001 [Summary: Phylogenies of Adh1 and Adh2 genes suggest that a widespread Mediterranean peony, Paeonia officinalis, is a homoploid hybrid species between two allotetraploid species, Paeonia peregrina and a member of the Paeonia arietina species group. Three phylogenetically distinct types of Adh sequences have been identified from both accessions of P. officinalis, of which two types are most closely related to the two homoeologous Adh loci of the P. arietina group and the remaining type came from one of the two Adh homoeologs of P. peregrina. The other Adh homoeolog of P. peregrina was apparently lost from the hybrid genome, possibly through backcrossing with the P. arietina group. This is a documentation of homoploid hybrid speciation between allotetraploid species in nature. This study suggests that hybrid speciation between allotetraploids can occur without an intermediate stage of genome diploidization or a further doubling of genome size]ded additional insights into the relationships within Paeonia.

Sang, Tao, CrawfordJD , StuessyTF,1995, Documentation of reticulate evolution in peonies (Paeonia) using sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA: Implications for biogeography and concentrated evolution,Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:6813-6817 [ABSTRACT The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of 33 species of genus Paeonia (Paeoniaceae) were sequenced. In section Paeonia, different patterns of nucleotide additivity were detected in 14 diploid and tetraploid species at sites that are variable in the other 12 species of the section, suggesting that reticulate evolution has occurred. Phylogenetic relationships of species that do not show additivity, and thus ostensibly were not derived through hybridization, were reconstructed by parsimony analysis. The taxa presumably derived through reticulate evolution were then added to the phylogenetic tree according to additivity from putative parents. The study provides an example of successfully using ITS sequences to reconstruct reticulate evolution in plants and further demonstrates that the sequence data could be highly informative and accurate for detecting hybridization. Maintenance of parental sequences in the species of hybrid origin is likely due to slowing of concerted evolution caused by the long generation time of peonies. The partial and uneven homogenization of parental sequences displayed in nine species of putative hybrid origin may have resulted from gradients of gene conversion. The documented hybridizations may have occurred since the Pleistocene glaciations. The species of hybrid origin and their putative parents are now distantly allopatric. Reconstruction of reticulate evolution with sequence data, therefore, provides gene records for distributional histories of some of the parental species. ] local copy html file, pdf.

Sang T, Pan J, Zhang D M, Diane Ferguson, Wang C, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Origins of polyploids: an example from peonies (Paeonia) and a model for angiosperms. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 561—571. (HTML-Version: (PDF: (link to a local copy html-file) (link to a local copy .pdf-file) [The majority of tetraploid peonies are allopolyploids derived from crosses between phylogenetically distinct diploid lineages. Tetraploid Paeonia obovata was previously considered to be an autopolyploid because it is morphologically indistinguishable from the diploid of the same species. The presence of the Adh2 gene in tetraploid P. obovata but the inability to amplify the Adh2 gene from Chinese diploids of P. obovata, however, suggests that the tetraploid was not an autotetraploid derivative of the geographically adjacent diploid populations in China. The Adh gene phylogenies rather suggest that the tetraploid originated from crosses between two geographical races of diploid P. obovata distributed in China and Japan. The intermediate status of tetraploid P. obovata between auto- and allopolyploidy highlights the need for population genetic analyses of polyploid origins along the continuous range of genomic divergence. Here we present a model that describes the probabilities of polyploid formation and establishment as a function of genomic divergence between diploid progenitors. The probability of polyploid formation (Pf) is obtained from the multiplication of the probability of production of unreduced gametes (Pg) and the probability of 'hybridization' (Ph). Pf stays relatively stable when the genomic divergence is low, and then decreases progressively rapidly with the increase of genomic divergence between diploid progenitors. The probability of polyploid establishment (Pe), which depends on the rate of appearance of stable beneficial gene combinations and the rate of fertility restoration, is positively correlated with the genomic divergence of diploid parents. Multiplication of Pf and Pe gives an overall probability of polyploid origins (Po) that varies continuously along the genomic divergence between diploid progenitors.]

Santa Monica Mountains Plant of the Month: Wild peony, February 2006

Sargent C S , 1911, Plantae Wilsonae: An enumeration of the woody plants collected in W China for the Arnold Arboretum during 1907, 1908 & 1910 pub, Cambridge, Mass USA in nine parts forming three volumes Paeonia Vol 1 p 318-319, pub 1913 by Alfred Rehder & EH Wilson)

Sargent, C. S. (1926). Standard letter to all recipients of Rock’s seeds in accession records at RBG Kew and RBG Edinburgh.

Sarker,S.D.; Whiting,P.; Dinan,L.; Sik,V.; Identification and ecdysteroid antagonist activity of three resveratrol trimers (suffruticosols A, B and C) from Paeonia suffruticosa Tetrahedron 1999 55(2) 513-524

SarubinAM, BykowaTN,1988, Nomenklatur, systematische Lage, Systematik der Arten, Kategorien der Verbreitung. in: K.A.Sobolewskaja (Redaktion) Bioökologische Besonderheiten der Pflanzen von Sibirien, die den Schutz brauchen. pp.133-148, Novosibirsk. Artikel über P.lactiflora in Sibirien (particularités bioécologiques de plantes de Sibérie)

Satoh A, Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Okamoto T, Sei Y. Antioxidative effects related to the potential anti-aging properties of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and Carthami Flos in senescence-accelerated mice. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2004 Jul-Aug;39(1):69-82. [Abstract: The popular oxidative stress theory predicts that enhancement of the antioxidative defense system to attenuate free radical-induced damage counteracts the aging process. We used senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) because SAM has been shown to suppress the antioxidative defense system and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. We investigated the antioxidative effects of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and its crude drug component Carthami Flos. The administration of Kangen-karyu extract at 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 weeks inhibited generation of nitric oxide, superoxide and the hydroxyl radical (*OH), while Carthami Flos extract showed only *OH-scavenging activity. Diet supplemented with Kangen-karyu and Carthami Flos extracts enhanced the activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase in hepatic tissue and glutathione peroxidase in renal tissue, and reduced the hepatic lipid peroxidation level which increased with aging, indicating the protective action against oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidative status. Hepatic and renal dysfunction with aging was also ameliorated by the administration of Kangen-karyu and Carthami Flos supplements. Furthermore, the observed antioxidative properties of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu were more evident than those of Carthami Flos. These findings suggest that the protective activity of Kangen-karyu against the oxidative tissue damages during aging may be due partly to synergistic and/or additive effects of its crude preparation. The present study strongly indicates that Kangen-karyu counteract the oxidative stress and ameliorating tissue damage possibly associated with aging in SAM. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.] Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. Click here to read the complete article.

SaundersAP, 1918,The Preservation of Pollen For Hybridizing ,American Peony Society Bulletin 6

SaundersAP, 1919, How To Hybridize Peonies,American Peony Society Bulletin 8

SaundersAP, 1924, The Growing of Peonies Address before the ,Mass Hort SocJune 1924,Printed in Yearbook, pp57-68

SaundersAP ,1925, Blooming Dates of Peonies in Central Indiana,Flower Grower, vol12,p391

SaundersAP, 1925, Peony Blooming Dates (North Carolina),Flower Grower, vol12,p264

SaundersAP, 1925, Peony Progress of the Recent Decade,Gard Mag (NY) pp332-334

SaundersAP, 1927, Some New Hybrid Peonies,American Peony Society Bulletin 27

SaundersAP ,1927, Sterilities encountered in the Breeding of Peonies,Mem Hort Soc New York, vol3,pp45-49

SaundersAP, 1928 PEONY SPECIES (Other than albiflora and moutan) in: Peonies, The Manual of the American Peony Society, edited by James Boyd © 1928 American Peony Society

SaundersAP, 1928, New Strain of Hybrid Peonies,American Peony Society Bulletin 34. Reprinted 1990 on pp . 151-153 in: Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990

SaundersAP, 1928, New Strain of Hybrid Peonies,Hortus vol6,p130

SaundersAP, 1931, Some Asiatic Peonies,American Peony Society Bulletin 48

SaundersAP, 1931, Some Asiatic Peonies,New Flora and Silva, vol3, pp234-243, and vol4,pp56-61

SaundersAP, 1932, Species Hybrids in Peonies,Proceedings 6th Internat Congr Genetics vol2, pp173,375

SaundersAP, 1933, Hybrid Peonies,New Flora and Silva, vol5(4)pp245-255

SaundersAP, 1933, New Hybrid Peonies,Horticulture, vol11,(4)p54

SaundersAP , Stebbins GLJr , 1938, Cytogenetic Studies in Paeonia I The compability of the species and the appearance of the hybrids, vol23,pp65-82

SaundersAP, 1941, Some Hybrid Peonies,American Peony Society Bulletin 84

SaundersAP ,1943, Plant Hybridizing, A Fascinating Study,American Peony Society Bulletin 90 Reprinted 1990 on pp . 146-151 in : Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990

SaundersAP, 1943, Tree Peonies, an exciting Adventure,American Peony Society Bulletin 92

SaundersAP ,1945, Two New Races of Peonies,American Peony Society Bulletin 100

SaundersAP, 1949, Peony Hybrids,American Peony Society Bulletin 114

Saunders, Silvia, 1934, P.forrestii trollioides ,obovata varalba,Nat Hort Mag, Washington, XIII 200, t

Saunders, Silvia, 1934, A Portfolio of Peony Species.",National Hort. Mag., Washington, B.C. 13, 213-233.

Saunders, Silvia, 1959, Saunders' Hybrid Peonies. Handbook on Breeding Ornamental Plants, Brookliyn Botanic Garden, Reprint of Plants and Gardens, vol. 15 No. 2

Saunders, Silvia, 1962, The Work of Prof A.P.Saunders pp. 40-61 in: Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Saunders, Silvia & William H. Krekler 1962, Description of the Hybrid Peonies pp. 90-99 in: Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Saunders, Silvia, 1969, Personal Impressions of the Mansfield Show. American Peony Society Bulletin 194: 4-6

Saunders, Silvia, 1970, Lactifloras useful to Peony Breeders (and a few Hybrids),American Peony Society 75 Years pp137-138

Saunders, Silvia, 1979, Report on the Counting of Chromsomes,American Peony Society 75 Years pp148-148

Sauter JJ 1968 Histoautoradiography studies on ribonucleic acid synthesis during meiosis in Paeonia tenuifolia L] ; Naturwissenschaften, May

Savi,1815, Bot Etrusc. 2, n8 ;

Sawada, M. 1971, Floral vasculation of Paeonia japonica with some sonsideration on systematic position of the Paeoniaceae. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 84 (992) : 51-60

SaxK, See Anderson, E., and Sax, K. (1936).

ScalabrinB,1991,Paeonia Moutan Ein Kapitel aus dem Curtis Botanical Magazin,Schweizer Staudengärten 15/16:7-8

Schamrov, I.I. (1997) Razvitie semiazatchatka i semeni u Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniaceae) (ovule et développement de la graine chez Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniaceae), Botanicheskij Journal, 82 (6): 24-26

Scheutz, 1888, Svenska Vet. Acad. Handl. 22, no. 10, p. 80 .

Scheutz, Pl. jeniss. Paeonia anomala p. 80; (cit. nach Tolm.)

Schinz,1906,Vierteljahrsschr. Nat. Ges. Zürich, 51, 219

Schinz,1909,Vierteljahrsschr. Nat. Ges. Zürich, 53, 533 ;

Schinz & Keller,1909,Flora Schweiz. Ed. 3, 1, 208 ;

Schinz & Keller,1923,Flora Schweiz. Ed. 4, 1, 254

Schinz & Thellung,1907,Bull Herb Boiss,Ser.2,7, 181 ,

Schinz & Thellung,1915,Vierteljahrsschr. Nat. Ges. Zürich, 60, 353 ;

Schipczinsky — Nicola Valerianovic Schipczinsky, 1886- ... Leningrad and Helsinki

SchipczinskiNV,1920,Novie vidy aziatskoj flory [P.bifurcata],Not Syst Herb Horti Bot Petrop. 1:7 p. 3 .

(nouvelles espèces de la flore asiatique)

SchipczinskiNV,1921,Kratkii obzor Roda Paeonia (Tourn.) L." [Synopsis of the genus Paeonia.],Not Syst Herb Horti Bot Petrop. 2: 11-12 pp. 41-47. (Aperçu général du genre Paeonia)

Schipczinski, N.V. 1930, Paeonia in Fedtschenko, B.A., Flora jugo-vostoka Evropskoj tchasti SSSR - 4, Salicaceae-Ranunculaceae. Flore du sud-ouest de la partie européenne de l'URSS-4), Acta Horti Petropolitani, 43 (1): 322

SchipczinskiNV,1937,Rod Paeonia in: Komarov, Flora SSSR, t7 24-35, t. 3. M-L, Izd-vo AN SSSR Leningrad; traduit en anglais en 1970 par le programme israélien de traduction scientifique : Flora of the USSR vol. 7 : 21-29, Jérusalem

SchipczinskiNV,1946,Introdukcija nekotorykh kustarnikovykh rastenii dlja ozelenenija Leningrada i ego okrestnostej, Sbhautchn rabot BIN AN SSSR, vypoln v Leningrade za 3 goda Velikoj Otvetchestva 1941-1945, Ls 225 [ Einführung einiger staudiger Pflanzen für die Kultur in Leningrad und ihre Besonderheiten]

SchipczinskiNV,1954, Sem Ranunculaceae, Derevja u kustarniki SSSR, t3 M-L [ Fam. Ranunculaceae. in: Bäume und Sträucher der UdSSR]

Schlechtendal, D. F. L. v. , L. E. Langethal & Ernst Schenk, 1882, Flora von Deutschland. Fünfte Auflage. Revidirt, verbessert und nach den neueren wissenschaftlichen Erfahrungen bereichert von Dr. Ernst Hallier. Colorit und Neuzeichnungen von G. Pabst und Walther Müller in Gera. Elfter Band Familie 38: Ranunculaceae. Paeonia pp. 264- 270, t. 1089-1090I &1090II; Gera-Untermhaus 1882. Verlag von Fr. Engen Köhler.

Schlising, R.A. 1976, Reproductive proficiency in Paeonia californica (Paeoniaceae) . Amer. J. Botany. 63 (8) : 1095-1103 Illus. chrom No.

Schlosser & Vukotinovic,1869, Flora Croatica, 188-189 .

Schmidt, 1868, Reisen Amur-Lande und Ins. Sachalin (P.obovata), Mem Acad Sci. St. Petersb. Ser. 7, 12, no. 2), 32 109

Schmiemann, Gisela (1997) Species Peony International Network Meeting 1997 in Switzerland May 27th to June 1st. American Peony Society Bulletin 304, December 1997 p. 24 –26

Schmitt, Eric, 1996 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L.. Plantes de Montagne . 177: 16-20

Schmitt, Eric, 1996 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 2e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 179: 92-101

Schmitt, Eric, 1996 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 3e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 180: 131-137

Schmitt, Eric, 1997 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 4e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 181: 176-186

Schmitt, Eric, 1997 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 5e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 182: 222-236

Schmitt, Eric, 1997 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 6e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 183: 251-261

Schmitt, Eric, 1997 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 7e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 184: 289-299

Schmitt, Eric, 1998 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 8e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 186: 372-382

Schmitt, Eric, 1998 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 9e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 187: 422-427

Schmitt, Eric, 1998 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 10e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 188: 466-473

Schmitt, Eric, 1999 , Les Pivoines. Étude systematique du genre Paeonia L. 11e partie. Plantes de Montagne . 189: 501-508

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Schneider Camillo Karl ; 1876 - 1951

Schneider, Camillo 1904,Ill. Handbuch Laubholzkunde 1, Paeonia pp. 271-273, fig 180 a-c, 181 d-f

Schneider, 1913, Bull Soc Dendr France, , p. 157, fig. 54.

Schneider's publications on his China-trip and related with peonies:

1913: Die von uns geplante Chinareise. Ihre Zwecke und Ziele. Mitteilungen der D.G., Bd. 2, H.3, 59-60.

1913: Unsere Chinareise. Mitteilungen der D.G., Bd. 2, H.4, 112-113.

1914: Im Urwald im Lololande. Österreichische Garten-Zeitung, 9. Jg., 214—216.

1914: Im Urwald im Reiche der gelben Lama. Österreichische Garten-Zeitung, 9. Jg., 296-299.

1914: In der Heimat der Camelie. Österreichische Garten-Zeitung, 9. Jg., 161-163.

1914: In der Heimat unserer Gartenpäonie. Österreichische Garten-Zeitung, 9. Jg., 281-283.

1914: Unsere Chinareise. Mitteilungen der D.G., Bd. 2, H.6, 149-151.

1915/1916: Im fernen Westen Chinas. Westermanns Monatshefte, 60. Jg., 857-876.

1920: China, das dendrologische Paradies. Mitteilungen der D.D.G., Nr. 29, 152-163.

1920: Westchinesische Blütenschätze für unsere Gärten. Die Gartenschönheit, 1. Jg., 12-13.

1922: Wertvolle amerikanische Päonien. Die Gartenschönheit, 3. Jg., 212.

1926: Wertvolle Stauden - Päonien. Die Gartenschönheit, 7. Jg., 251.

1935: Schöne Päonien. Gartenschönheit, 16. Jg., 129.

1937: Einige interessante Päonienarten. Gartenschönheit, 18. Jg., 264-265.

1950: Pfingstrosen. Deutsche Gärtnerpost, 2. Jg., H. 32. 3.

Schneider's other publications: (link)

about Schneider: Vierle, Claudia : Camillo Schneider, Dendrologe und Gartenbauschriftsteller Eine Studie zu seinem Leben und Werk Berlin 1998 Technische Universität Berlin , Materialien zur Geschichte der Gartenkunst, Herausgegeben von Johannes Küchler, Institut für Management in der Umweltplanung, Fachgebiet Theorie und Geschichte der Landschaftsentwicklung, Fachbereich Umwelt und Gesellschaft, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. FR 2-7, Franklinstr. 28/29, 10587 Berlin © Bei der Technischen Universität Berlin und der Autorin, ISBN 3-7983-1790-9

Schneider's peonies: (Schneider, Camillo)

Schneider, C

Schongauer, Martin 1472, Pfingstrosen, Aquarell

Schongauer, Martin 1473, Colmarer Marienbild, »Madonna im Rosenhag«

Auszug aus einer ungarisch-sprachigen Website über Martin Schongauer

Schöffer, Peter 1484 Herbarius, Herbarius Moguntinus, Aggregator practicus de Simplicibus , Mainz

Schrenk,1854, Reise Tundra Samojeden, 2, 486

Schrenk, Enum. pl. Paeonia anomala (als P. intermedia ) p.486. (cit. nach Tolm.)

Schrött, L. & Faur, A. (1969) Contributii la cunoasterea ariei de raspindire a bujorului de padure Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill. var. tritematiformis (A. Nyàr.) A. Nyàr. In Banat, Comunicari de Botanica, 10 : 181-190

(Contribution s à la connaissance de l'areal de P. mascula (L.) var. triternatiformis (A. Nyár.) A Nyár. dans le Banat )

Schukhr,1808, Bot. Handb. Ed. 2, Paeonia 2, 81, t. 144

Schwarzacher-RobinsonT,1986,Meiosis, SC-formation and karyotype structure in diploid Paeonia tenuifolia and tetraploid P.officinalis,Plant Systematics and Evolution 154(3) p259-274 [in progress]

Schwenckfeldt, Kaspar, 1600, Stirpium & fossilium Silesiae catalogus, Leipzig

Scopoli,1772,Flora Cam. Ed. 2, 1, 378 ;

Seidl, Bill (1999) Fifty Years of Intersectional Breeding. American Peony Society Bulletin 312, December 1999 pp. 25-32

Seidl, Bill (2000) Breeding For The Color Orange, American Peony Society Bulletin 313, March 2000 p. 19-23

SennHA,1938,Chromosome Number Relationships in the Leguminosae.",Bibllogr. Genetica 12, I75-33?- 298-303.

Seringe N C, 1849, Flores des jardins et des grandes culturas ou descrption des plantes,Paris : Paeonia vol 3 pp.187-193

Sethi N; 1991, Teratogenic activity of some indigenous medicinal plants in rats. International Journal of Toxicology, Occupational and Environmetal Health 1991 Nov;1(1):131) (1; , )

Sevald Nursery,1998,Peony List 1998,4937 3rs Avenue So MinneapolisMN 55409 USA

Shang MY 1982, [Studies on pulverized Corter moutan radicis] ; Chung Yao Tung Pao, 1982 Sep

Shen Bao An: The study on classification, identification and revision for the medicinal plants of Sect. Moutan in Paeonia from china , Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research 2001 Vol.12 No.4   P.330-333, for a translation ran the text over the babelfish translator: (local translation – not corrected!) Click on the links with many pictures! +

Shen Bao An: The Origin of the radional Chinese Medicine „Mudanpi“ - A new variety of Paeonia . Plant classification Journal 1997 vol. 4. online under: and also under

Shen Bao An: Zhong Guo Shaoyao Mudan Zu Wu Zi Zi Yuan Fen Lei Yan jiu Yu xiu Ding . Anhui sheng Wu Hu Shi Yao Pin Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medice Research 2001 Vol.12 No.4   P.330-333, online under

Shen Bao An & Liu Chang Geng: 2002: Peony cultivation technology for medicinal purposes Shen Bao An, (Anhui Province Wuhu institute for drug control 241,001), Liu Chang Geng (South Anhui Province Ling Xian drug company 242,400) published online under: , translation available here.

Shen Nong betw. 220-265AD Herbal Classic

Sheying Zhenpin Ji 1999 Zhonguo Mudan In Chinesisch. 190 Seiten, c.a. 250 Bilder. Wunderbare Farbaufnahmen. Peking (China) (zit. nach

Shimada Y, Yokoyama K, Goto H, Sekiya N, Mantani N, Tahara E, Hikiami H, Terasawa K. Protective effect of keishi-bukuryo-gan and its constituent medicinal plants against nitric oxide donor-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Phytomedicine. 2004 Jul;11(5):404-10. [Abstract: Keishi-bukuryo-gan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese medical (Kampo) formulation that has been administered to patients with "Oketsu" (blood stagnation) syndrome. In the process of neuronal cell death induced by brain ischemia, excessive generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals is implicated in the neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of KBG and its constituent medicinal plants against NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (NOC18)-induced neuronal death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). MTT assay showed cell viability to be significantly increased by the addition of KBG extract (KBGE) (100 microg/ml), Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) (3, 10 and 30 microg/ml), Paeoniae Radix extract (PRE) (100 microg/ml) and Moutan Cortex extract (MCE) (10 and 30 microg/ml) compared with exposure to SNP (30 microM, 24 h) only. Also, cell viability was significantly increased by the addition of KBGE (100 and 300 microg/ml), CCE (30 and 100 microg/ml), PRE (100 and 300 microg/ml) and MCE (30 and 100 microg/ml) compared with exposure to NOC 18 (100 microM, 48 h) only. Persicae Semen extract and Hoelen extract did not protect against NO donor-induced neuronal death. These results suggest that KBG has protective effect against NO-mediated neuronal death in cultured CGCs and that it is derived from Cinnamomi Cortex, Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Cortex.] PMID: 15330495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Department of Japanese Oriental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. click here to read the complete article

ShimizuM, HayashiT++,1981,Peoniflorigenome, a new monoterpene from peony roots,Tetrahedron Letters vol22:32 pp3069-3070

Shimizu, K. , Sakata, Y., Shiraishi, A., Aoki, N., Wang, L.-S., Hashimoto, F. : Analysis of Petal Anthocyanins to Investigate Flower Coloration of Zhongyuan (Chinese) and Daikon Island (Japanese) Tree Peony Cultivars JOURNAL OF PLANT RESEARCH 114(1113):33-44 2001 (direct link to „Infotrieve“), [Summary:A comparative study was conducted on Zhongyuan (130, Chinese) and Daikon Island (37, Japanese) tree peony cultivars to analyze anthocyanin constitutions in the petals in relation to flower colors. The distribution of flower hues displayed by loci of colors on a CIELAB (international Commission on Illumination) diagram was found to be similar between cultivars of the two areas. However, the flower colors of a traditional classification did not correspond with the CIELAB hues. An identification by chemical structure of three anthocyanidins in the petals (pelargonidin, Pg; cyanidin, Cy and peonidin, Pn) classified the cultivars into four flower groups, i.e. Pn, Pg; Pn, Pg>Cy; Pn, Cy and Pn, Cy>Pg groups. Each group consequently specified significant features among CIELAB color notation and petal pigmentation, being adequate to characterize tree peony flowers as similar between Zhongyuan and Daikon Island cultivars, thus the cultivars of the two areas are suggested to be related to one another.]

ShimokoriyamaM,1980,Yellow flavonoids p174-182 In: KHayashi (ed)Plant pigments,Yokendo Press, Tokyo

Shin,-J.H.; Kim,-J.C.; Park,-S.D.; Sohn,-J.K., 1996, Effect of GA3 on seed germination of peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.). Korean-Journal-of-Plant-Tissue-Culture (Korea Republic). (Jul 1996). v.23(4) p. 231-234.. (Korean)

Shin,-J.H.; Park,-S.D.; Sohn,-J.K.; Kim,-K.M.; Kim,-K.W, 1997, Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora pall.). Korean-Journal-of-Plant-Tissue-Culture (Korea Republic). (Sep 1997). v. 24(5) p. 291-294.(Korean)

Sibthorp & Smith,1806, Prodromus Florae Graec. Paeonia 1, 369 ,

Sieber — Franz Wilhelm Sieber, 1777-1844, Prague

Sieber (Tausch I F) 1828 „Bemerkungen ueber einige Arten der Gattung Paeonia.", [P. corsica], Flora, Regensburg, 11, i, 81-89.

Siebold, Franz von

Philipp Franz von Siebold and W.H. de Vriese (eds.). Annales d’horticulture et de botanique, ou flore des jardins du Royaume des Pays-Bas by Philipp Franz von Siebold and W.H. de Vriese (eds.). Leiden, 1861, A.W. Sijthoff. Chromolithograph (sheet 180 x 264 mm).. (Meemelink) * Nissen BBI 2211; Stafleu & Cowan V p. 587.

Paeonia moutan x Triomphe de Harlem.

Paeonia moutan x Laurens Koster.

Siev, 1795, JV. Nord. Beitr. 7, 346 . Paeonia laciniata

SimeanuV , CorneanuR, 1978, Studiul morfi-anatomic la P. mascula Mill. var. romanica Brandza. Stud. si cerc. com cult. si educ. soc. jud. Gory 87-92 (Rom. En. Ge)

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Simonkai,1886, Enum Flora Transsilv. 66

Sims — John Sims, 1792-1838, England

Sims, J. 1807, Paeonia peregrina, Crimson-flowered Peony, Curtis 's Botanical Magazine, 25 : t. 1050

Sims, J. 1808, Paeonia moutan, Curtis 's Botanical Magazine vol.29 t. 1154

Sims, J. ,1812 Paeonia daurica, Daurian Paeony, Curtis 's Botanical Magazine, 35 : t. 1441

Sims, J. ,1815, Paeonia edulis var. sinensis. Chinese Eatable Peony Curtis 's Botanical Magazine t. 1768 .

Sims, J. ,1820, Paeonia moutan, var. papaveracea, Single flowered Moutan. Curtis 's Botanical Magazine vol. 47 t. 2175

Sims, J. ,1821, Paeonia pubens, downy Peony, Curtis 's Botanical Magazine, 48 : t. 2264

Sims, J., 1826, P. sessiliflora, Curtis 's Botanical Magazine t. 2648

Simpson, N.D. (1960) A bibliographical Index of the British Flora. Bournemouth, pub. by the author

Sinnott , Mike Peony Collection : Paeonia turcica Kew Scientist April 1997

SinotoY,1938,Karyotype Analysis in Paeonia I,Cytologia, vol.9 (2-3) 254-271

Skvortsov, A.K. & al. (1979) Introduktzia rastenij prirodnoj flory SSSR (1979) : 232-235, Izdateljstvo "nauka", Moscou

Einführungen von Pflanzen der heimischen Flora der UdSSR im Zentr. Botanischen Garten

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SmirnowL,1979,Remarkable Tree Peony Discoveries,American Peony Society 75 Years pp52

SmirnowL,1979,Tree Peonies Topics,American Peony Society 75 Years pp57-58

Smirnow's Son's Peonies,1997,Tree Peonies,168 Maple Hill Road, Huntington NY 11743 USA

Smith A.M. 1878. Flora von Fiume. Verh. d. zool. bot. Ges. 54 S. Wien. Erwähnt Paeonia mascula für Istrien, zit. nach Pericin 1998

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SmithDR (ed),1994, Paeonia,West Newton, Massachusettes(Newsletter)

Smith Donald, 1995 Observations on the development, germination and growth of intersectional hybrid seeds

Smith Donald, 1995, Intersectional peony hybrids; the reziprocal cross ,

Smith Donald, 1997, Breeding tree peonies vor fragrance ,

Sir Peter Smithers, Vico Morcote, Switzerland. b. 1913 breedings and biography here

Smithers, P. (1992). Rock’s Peony – The Garden 117 (11): 519-521.

Smithers, P. (1993). Letter in The Garden 118 (4): 176.

Smithers, Sir Peter, Adventures of a Gardener, Gebundene Ausgabe - 211 Seiten - Harvill Press , Erscheinungsdatum: 1. Mai 1996, ISBN: 1860460593. [Sir Peter beschreibt in diesem Buch ausführlich seine Leidenschaft zu den Pflanzen, auf mehreren Seiten auch ausführlich über Päonien und seine eigenen Züchtungen]

Westrich, Josh & Smithers, Sir Peter 1990, Strauchpäonien – (Tree peonies, in german language) 120 pages DuMont, ISBN 3-7701-2490-1

SnowR ,1969,Permanent translocation heterozygosity associated with an inversion system in Paeonia brownii,Heredity 60: 103-106

Sokolov, P.D. (1986) ratiteljnye resursy SSSR, Isvetkovye rastenija ich chimitcheskii sostav, ispoljzovanie, paeoniaceae- Thymeleaceae : 7-11, Izdateljstvo "nauka", Leningrad,1986,

deutsche Übersetzung: Chemischer Gehalt und Medizinische Anwendung von Päonien

english tranlation: Chemical Content and medical use of Peonies

(ressources végétales de l'URSS)

SokolovskayaAP?,1960,Geografitcheskoe rasprostranenie poliploidnykh vidov rastenij (Issledovanie florij Sakhalinsokogo kraia)

[Geographical distribution of Polyploid Species of Plants (Investigation of Flora of Sakhalia Island)],Vestn Leningruniv, Ser Biol, 4, 21: 42-58

SokolovskayaAP ,1966, Geografitcheskoe rasprostranenie poliploidnykh vidov rastenij (Issledovanie florij Primorskogo kraia) Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta, serija Biologija, 3: 92-106

[Geographical Spreading of Polyploid Sorts of Plants (Investigation of the Flora of Promorye Territory)],

(Distribution géographique des végétaux polyploïdes-Investigations sur la flore des régions littorales de l'extrème-est),

SolbrigOT, , GadellaTWJ,1970,'Biosystematic literature 1945-1964',Regnum Vegetabile Vol 69 (Paeonia p 456-457)

Soldano, A. (1993) Nuovi dati nomenclaturali su piante délia flora italiana e mediterranea, Atti délia Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale de Milano, 133 (10) : 144 (or 114, following Passalaqua)

SomeiT ,1986,New American herbaceous peony,Shinkaki 130:9-12

Somei, Takahiro (1995) Tree Peonies in Japan, translated by Ron Ringdahl pp. 29-58 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343

Sommier,1893,Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 25, 51 ,

Sommier,1896,N. Ser. 8,19

Song,-J.C.; Lee,-S.Y.; Park,-N.K.; Bang,-M.H.; Baek,-N.I. 1999 Isolation and structure determination of antioxidants from the root of Paeonia lactiflora., The-Korean-Society-of-Agricultural-Chemistry-and-Biotechnology. (May 1999). v. 42(2) p. 170-175.. (Korean)

Song ZH, Wang BD, Ba H, Tong XT, Zhu DY, Jiang FX. [Studies on chemical constituents in root of Paeonia sinjiangensis] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):748-51. [OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the root of Paeonia sinjiangensis. METHOD: The constituents were isolated by silica column chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis and their physical-chemical constants. RESULT: Five compounds, paeoniflorin( I ), albiflorin (II), lactiflorin(III), daucosterol(IV), sucrose (V), were obtained. CONCLUSION: All of the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.] Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China.

SoóR, 1945, Növényföldrajz Paeonia officinalis ssp.banatica p.146

SoóR, 1960, What is Paeonia banatica Rochel?, Acta Botanica 6,pp139-141

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StapfO,1916, Paeonia Willmottiae.",Curtis's Botanical Magazine t. 8667.* vol.142,

StapfO,1918, Paeonia peregrina." ,Curtis's Botanical Magazine t. 8742.* vol.144,

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Stearn, William T., 1941,Plants new and noteworthy: „Paeonia rhodia“, THE WILD PAEONY OF RHODES. Gard. Chron. 110:158-160, fig7

Stearn, William T., DavisPH,1984, Peonies of Greece. Kifissia, Greece:,Goulandris Natural History Museum, JMakris SA ISBN 0.565.00975.3.

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Stebbins — George Ledyard Stebbins, Colgate College and University of California, 1906- 2000

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Photo 1999

about him: Peter H. Raven (Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 266, St. Louis, MO 63166) G. Ledyard Stebbins (1906–2000): An appreciation, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 June 20; 97(13): 6945–6946. Copyright © 2000, The National Academy of Sciences [Colloquium Paper]

Stepanova, E.F. (1962) Rastiteljnostj i flora khrebta Tarbagataj (végétation et flore de la chaîne du tarbagataï): 378 Izdateljstvo Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata

Stern — Sir Frederick Claude Stern, 1884-1967 England about him

SternFC,1931,Paeony Species, Journ Royal Horticultural Society vol56, pp71-77

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SugayaA, SuzukiT, SugayaE++,1991,Inhibitory effect of peony root extract on pentylenetetrazol-induced EEG power spectrum changes and extracellular calcium concentration changes in rat cerebral cortex,Journ Ethnopharmacol May-Jun;33(1-2):159-67

Sugiyama, M. 1980, Comparative Studies of vascular system of node-leaf continuum in the Ranalian Complex 1. Clematis williamsii & Paeonia japonica. J. Jap. Botany. 55 (4) : 114-122 Ja. Illus.

Sunaga K, Sugaya E, Kajiwara K, Tsuda T, Sugaya A, Kimura M. Molecular mechanism of preventive effect of peony root extract on neuron damage. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(1):9-20. [Abstract: The molecular mechanism of the protective effects of peony root extract and its component substances on neuron damage induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model and the EL mouse was investigated. Long-term administration of peony root extract for 30 days prior to metallic cobalt powder application to the cerebral cortex of mice resulted in increased expression of A20, an inhibitor gene of cell death. In the EL mouse, a hereditary epilepsy animal model with vulnerable neurons, increased expression of A20 was observed even without administration of peony root extract. Long-term administration of peony root extract to the EL mouse resulted in a marked increase of expression of A20. These results suggested that an increase in A20 expression is the main molecular mechanism of protective action of peony root extract on neuron damage.] Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan.

Sun-Wenji; Jian-Guiliang, 1999 Preliminary identification of causal organisms of peony root rot in Heze area of Shandong Province [China]. original title: Shandong Heze diqu moudan genfubing bingyuan zhengjun de fenli jianding. Acta-Phytopathologica-Sinica (China). Zhiwu Bingli Xuebao (China). (May 1999). v. 29(2) p. 177-180.. (Chinese)

Sun WS, Imai A, Tagami K, Sugiyama M, Furui T, Tamaya T. In vitro stimulation of granulosa cells by a combination of different active ingredients of unkei-to. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(4):569-78 [Abstract: Unkei-to is widely used in traditional Japanese herbal medicine for its ovulation-inducing effect. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effects of unkei-to and its compounds on the steroidogenesis and cytokine secretion in human granulosa cells. Unkei-to stimulated the secretions of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone from highly luteinized granulosa cells obtained from in vitro fertilization patients; the stimulated effect on estradiol secretion occurred with 0.3 microg/ml, while a significant effect on progesterone secretion was obtained at 10 microg/ml. The unkei-to stimulation of estradiol secretion could be accounted for by the effects of its ingredients, Shakuyaku (paeoniae radix, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas) and Keihi (cinnamomi cortex, Cinnamomum cassia Blume); while dose response curves for unkei-to and Keihi to induce progesterone production were superimposable. Exposure of the cells to unkei-to caused dose-dependent increases in the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in the culture medium. Similar results were obtained when cells were incubated with the ingredient Ninjin (ginseng radix, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), but not Shakuyaku and Keihi. These results indicate that unkei-to has direct stimulatory effects on human granulosa cells to stimulate the steroidogenesis and secretion of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8). The various beneficial actions of unkei-to on the ovary may result from a combination of different ingredient herbs with different stimulatory effects on both steroidogenesis and the ovulatory process within the ovary, as well as stimulatory effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis.] Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gifu University School of Medicine Gifu 500-8705, Japan.

SunXM, ZhangZW, ZhengY,1993,[Processing of medicinal peony]Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih Jul;18(7):411-3, 447

SUO ZhiLi, ZHANG HuiJin, ZHANG ZhiMing, CHEN FuFei, CHEN FuHui: DNA molecular evidences of the hybrids between P. rockii and P. suffruticosa based on ISSR markers. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 2005. 27(1): 42 – 8. ( ynzwyj/ynzw2005/0501/050105.htm)
[Paeonia rockii is considered to be one of the main progenitors of Chinese tree peony cultivars, and hybridization is likely to be the most important way for incorporation of genetic composition of P. rockii. However, no molecular evidence has shown relatedness of woody peony cultivars to P. rockii so far. In this study, P. rockii was used as a maternal parent crossing with other three Chinese woody peony cultivars (P. suffruticosa ‘Hai Tang Zheng Rong’, P. suffruticosa ‘Yan Zhi Hong’ and P. suffruticosa ‘Sheng Dan Lu’)  as paternal parents.The relationships between the F1 hybrids and their parents were analyzed using ISSR (Inter-simple sequence repeat) markers. Our results showed that ISSR fragments present in both parents were detected in the genomes of the F1 generation. Therefore, it is possible that some Chinese woody peony cultivars with a large black-purple blotch at the lower part of petals originated through hybridization with P. rockii as a parent. Our results also suggest that ISSR markers are useful for identification of hybrids and classification of cultivars.] 

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SyrovyJA,1979,Tree Peonies Troubles,American Peony Society 75 Years pp55

Sytnik K.M. (Red.),1988 Redkie i istchezajutchie rastenija i zhivotnye Ukrainy,Seltene und vom Aussterben bedrohte Pflanzen und Tiere der Ukraine,Lexikon , Kiev 1988, S.25-26, 27-28? (Plantes et animaux rares et en voie dedisparition d'Ukraine):

Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur S